Partial replacement of soybean meal with fermented copra meal in milkfish (Chanos chanos, Forsskal) diet
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Feeding trials were conducted to determine the optimum partial replacement level of soybean meal (SBM) with fermented copra meal (FCM). Isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets containing 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25% of the locally produced FCM partially replacing SBM protein by 0, 12, 27, 41, 56, and 71%, respectively and fully replacing copra meal were formulated. The diets were fed to the fish with an initial weight of 2.83±0.14 g for 12 weeks. Thereafter, the best diet was further tested in a preliminary feeding trial in brackishwater grow-out ponds to verify the performance of the formulated diet against a commercial milkfish feed in an outdoor grow-out system. The results of the indoor tank feeding trial indicated that weight gain of the fish was significantly better in the group fed diet 2, with 5% dietary FCM but further increase in the FCM inclusion level up to 20% of the diet did not exhibit statistical differences against the control. Moreover in the preliminary pond feeding trial, growth and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of the fish fed the FCM diet were significantly higher than the commercial control diet. Survival and nutrient composition of the fish carcass were not adversely affected by the treatments. Hence, optimum dietary FCM inclusion level was determined at 5% of the milkfish diet replacing 100% copra meal and 12% SBM protein. However, in terms of economics, up to 20% FCM can be included in the diet replacing 56% SBM protein may be possible with growth comparable to the FCM-less control.
CitationApines-Amar, M. J. S., Coloso, R. M., Jaspe, C. J., Salvilla, J. M., Amar-Murillo, M. N. G., & Saclauso, C. A. (2015). Partial replacement of soybean meal with fermented copra meal in milkfish (Chanos chanos, Forsskal) diet.
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Supporting ASEAN good aquaculture practices: Utilization of alternative protein sources for aquafeed to minimize pressure on fishery resources REP Mamauag -
Fish for the People, 2016 - SEAFDEC SecretariatAquaculture industry of Southeast Asia has been expanding steadily as a result of an increasing demand of food fish in the region as well as in the global scale. Aside from its contribution to the world’s fisheries, the aquaculture industry creates employment opportunities and provides income for the region’s fish farmers, as well as produces fish which is a major component in the diets of peoples in Southeast Asia. However, the fast development of aquaculture had been viewed as threat to sustainable capture fisheries production as the widespread use of fish by-catch in aquaculture feeds results in overexploitation of the fishery resources and to certain extent degradation of the resources. Recognizing the importance and urgency of addressing such concern, the Senior Officials of the ASEAN Member States responsible for fisheries adopted in June 2011, the Plan of Action on Sustainable Fisheries for Food security for the ASEAN Region Towards 2020 which includes provision on the need to “improve the efficient use of aquatic feeds by strictly regulating the quality of manufactured feed and feed ingredients and support continued research for developing suitable alternative protein sources that will reduce dependence on fishmeal and other fish-based products.” Along with such declaration, the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department has been enhancing its R&D activities aimed at finding alternatives to fishmeal as feed ingredients in aquaculture feed formulations.
Status development and use of alternative dietary ingredients in aquaculture feed formulation in the Philippines WM Cruz, J Villanueva & EG Janeo - In MR Catacutan, RM Coloso & BO Acosta (Eds.), Development and Use of Alternative Dietary Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation … Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation, 9-11 December 2014, Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar, 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterIn 2011, the Philippines ranked 7th in the world in fish production. It produced 4.97 thousand metric tons of fish, mollusks, crustaceans, and aquatic plants (seaweeds). The Philippines also ranked 11th in aquaculture production with 1.22% of the world s aquaculture production of 62.7 million metric tons (mt). Aquaculture in the Philippines generally depends on commercially-milled aquafeeds which in 2012 amounted to 61,846 mt. Aquaculture feed is composed of 24.3% fish meal. Fish-by-catch is associated with trash fish. Utilization of trash fish in the country in each segment could be summarized as: (1) for human consumption; (2) for processing of fish sauce; (3) for production of fish meal; and, (4) as direct feed for aquaculture. In 2013, about 15 thousand mt (24.3%) of fish meal were used wherein 3.97 thousand mt is imported while about 11 thousand mt is assumed to come from the local fish meal. The product lines of these plants are tuna and sardines based meal using heads, tails and whole fish rejected from tuna and sardine canneries. Local fish meal has around 50-55% protein content. Due to limited production and high cost of fish meal, the use of alternative feed ingredients for aqua feed sources are being utilized which include: a) legumes; b) Ipil-ipil leaf meal; c) miscellaneous fodder plants, such as the leaves and other aerial parts of papaya, water hyacinth, Ipomea and sweet potato; d) roots and tubers like arrow roots (Maranta arundinacea), sweet potato(Ipomea batatas L.), cassava (Manihot escolenta Crantz), taro (Colocasia esculenta L.), and elephant yam (Amorphophallus campanulatus); e) cereals and cereal by-products like rice bran and maize and f) oil cakes and oil meals. For feeds of animal origin, African snail meal, Giant toad meal, fish silage, feather meal, maggot meal, mussel (tahong) meal, and Superworm, Zophobas morio are identified. To improve the efficiency of feeding, there are three (3) practices being used in the Philippines. These are a) biomass feeding, b) satiation or Ad Libitum , and c) the use of automatic and demand feeder. For organic aquaculture, azolla and lemna (duckweed) are being cultured in separate ponds or in hapas installed within the ponds and feeding is being done by scooping the plants out to feed the fish. In contrast, lab-lab, an association of microbenthic organism is grown in the ponds using organic fertilizer.
Evaluation of some terrestrial proteins in complete diets for grouper (Epinephelus coioides) juveniles PS Eusebio, RM Coloso & REP Mamauag - In MA Rimmer, S McBride & KC Williams (Eds.), Advances in grouper aquaculture, 2004 - Australian Centre for International Agricultural ResearchThis study was undertaken to determine the nutritive value of some of the more widely available protein sources in the diets for grouper juveniles, based on apparent digestibility coefficients for dry matter (ADMD) and crude protein (APD), feed conversion ratio (FCR), specific growth rate (SGR) and survival. A series of feeding experiments were conducted to determine the growth performance of grouper juveniles. Test diets were formulated for growth (4 replications/treatment) and digestibility experiments (3 replications/treatment). Each diet contained a test ingredient: white fish meal, white cowpea meal and ipil-ipil leaf meal (experiment 1); local meat and bone meal, soya protein concentrates and meat solubles (experiment 2); and imported meal and bone meal, blood meal and maize gluten meal (experiment 3). A feeding trial for each experiment was conducted for 85 days in a flow-through system with filtered and aerated seawater. 10 and 20 juveniles were stocked in each of 60- and 250-litre fibreglass tanks, respectively. White cowpea meal (20.5% incorporation), local (16% incorporation) and imported (19% incorporation) meat and bone meals could partially replace fish meal in the diets for grouper juveniles without affecting their growth. Low ADMD and APD values for the processed feed ingredients (meat and bone meal, soya protein concentrates and blood meal-based diets) could be associated with the processing methods used in its preparation, which could damage the amino acids and contribute to low nitrogen digestibility. Apparent digestibility coefficients and growth could be used as indicators of the nutritional value of the feed ingredients. However, the availability and optimal balance of amino acids must also be considered.