Partial replacement of soybean meal with fermented copra meal in milkfish (Chanos chanos, Forsskal) diet
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Feeding trials were conducted to determine the optimum partial replacement level of soybean meal (SBM) with fermented copra meal (FCM). Isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets containing 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25% of the locally produced FCM partially replacing SBM protein by 0, 12, 27, 41, 56, and 71%, respectively and fully replacing copra meal were formulated. The diets were fed to the fish with an initial weight of 2.83±0.14 g for 12 weeks. Thereafter, the best diet was further tested in a preliminary feeding trial in brackishwater grow-out ponds to verify the performance of the formulated diet against a commercial milkfish feed in an outdoor grow-out system. The results of the indoor tank feeding trial indicated that weight gain of the fish was significantly better in the group fed diet 2, with 5% dietary FCM but further increase in the FCM inclusion level up to 20% of the diet did not exhibit statistical differences against the control. Moreover in the preliminary pond feeding trial, growth and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of the fish fed the FCM diet were significantly higher than the commercial control diet. Survival and nutrient composition of the fish carcass were not adversely affected by the treatments. Hence, optimum dietary FCM inclusion level was determined at 5% of the milkfish diet replacing 100% copra meal and 12% SBM protein. However, in terms of economics, up to 20% FCM can be included in the diet replacing 56% SBM protein may be possible with growth comparable to the FCM-less control.
CitationApines-Amar, M. J. S., Coloso, R. M., Jaspe, C. J., Salvilla, J. M., Amar-Murillo, M. N. G., & Saclauso, C. A. (2015). Partial replacement of soybean meal with fermented copra meal in milkfish (Chanos chanos, Forsskal) diet.
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Supporting ASEAN good aquaculture practices: Utilization of alternative protein sources for aquafeed to minimize pressure on fishery resources REP Mamauag -
Fish for the People, 2016 - Secretariat, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterAquaculture industry of Southeast Asia has been expanding steadily as a result of an increasing demand of food fish in the region as well as in the global scale. Aside from its contribution to the world’s fisheries, the aquaculture industry creates employment opportunities and provides income for the region’s fish farmers, as well as produces fish which is a major component in the diets of peoples in Southeast Asia. However, the fast development of aquaculture had been viewed as threat to sustainable capture fisheries production as the widespread use of fish by-catch in aquaculture feeds results in overexploitation of the fishery resources and to certain extent degradation of the resources. Recognizing the importance and urgency of addressing such concern, the Senior Officials of the ASEAN Member States responsible for fisheries adopted in June 2011, the Plan of Action on Sustainable Fisheries for Food security for the ASEAN Region Towards 2020 which includes provision on the need to “improve the efficient use of aquatic feeds by strictly regulating the quality of manufactured feed and feed ingredients and support continued research for developing suitable alternative protein sources that will reduce dependence on fishmeal and other fish-based products.” Along with such declaration, the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department has been enhancing its R&D activities aimed at finding alternatives to fishmeal as feed ingredients in aquaculture feed formulations.
Book chapterMR Catacutan - In OM Millamena, RM Coloso & FP Pascual (Eds.), Nutrition in Tropical Aquaculture: Essentials of fish nutrition, feeds, and feeding of tropical aquatic species, 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThe development of a feed that is both effective and economical for an aquaculture species in all its life stages is a continuous effort. Aquafeed development started when natural food sources in culture systems became inadequate and had to be supplemented with prepared feed. As fish stocking densities in culture increase, supplemental feeding is no longer sufficient. A complete feed that contains all the necessary nutrients in sufficient amounts to bring about good growth, survival, and reproduction is needed. Feed ingredients generally come from animal or plant sources and some are by-products of the food industry. There is no single feed ingredient or feedstuff that contains all the nutrients in adequate amounts. Thus, different feed ingredients are combined to make a feed that has the desired composition and nutrient levels. In combining various feed ingredients, it is important to know how much of each feed ingredient should be used to produce a cost-effective aquafeed. With the growth and expansion of aquaculture into a major industry, several fish species are being cultured; thus, the development of more efficient aquafeed formulations should continue. In developing cost-effective formulated diets, many important factors have to be considered. This chapter discusses these factors and the mathematical calculations in formulating a feed. It aims to enable students to formulate diets using purified and practical feed ingredients, and also to formulate effective supplemental and complete diets for aquaculture species.
Book | Conference publication
Development and use of alternative ingredients or fish meal substitutes in aquaculture feed formulation: Proceedings of the ASEAN Regional Technical Consultation on Development and Use of Alternative Dietary Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation MR Catacutan, RM Coloso & BO Acosta (Eds.) - 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterRecognizing the need for a concerted effort to follow-up on this priority issue of the ASEAN on aquaculture feed development and utilization. SEAFDEC (Aquaculture Department and Secretariat) and the Government of Myanmar organized the 'Regional Technical Consultation (RTC) on development and Use of Alternative Dietary Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation'. The meeting was convened with the main purpose of providing a forum for charting the regional priorities and future directions on feed development, particularly on the use of alternative feed ingredients or protein substitutes. The specific objectives were to: (i) review the ASEAN-SEAFDEC member country status, constraints associated with developing alternative dietary ingredients for aquaculture feed; (ii) identify specific advances being made in the region with respect to the development of alternative aquaculture feed ingredients; and (iii) define approaches or initiatives supporting catch reduction of low-value/trash fish; (iv) formulate relevant policy recommendations (regional and country-specific) for effective development and utilization of aquaculture feeds; and (v) enhance cooperation among member countries and relevant stakeholders on initiatives that support sustainable aquaculture practices, particularly on feeds. This publication presents the outputs of the RTC. The country reports and review papers presented during the conference which are contained in this volume are cited individually.