Partial replacement of soybean meal with fermented copra meal in milkfish (Chanos chanos, Forsskal) diet
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Feeding trials were conducted to determine the optimum partial replacement level of soybean meal (SBM) with fermented copra meal (FCM). Isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets containing 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25% of the locally produced FCM partially replacing SBM protein by 0, 12, 27, 41, 56, and 71%, respectively and fully replacing copra meal were formulated. The diets were fed to the fish with an initial weight of 2.83±0.14 g for 12 weeks. Thereafter, the best diet was further tested in a preliminary feeding trial in brackishwater grow-out ponds to verify the performance of the formulated diet against a commercial milkfish feed in an outdoor grow-out system. The results of the indoor tank feeding trial indicated that weight gain of the fish was significantly better in the group fed diet 2, with 5% dietary FCM but further increase in the FCM inclusion level up to 20% of the diet did not exhibit statistical differences against the control. Moreover in the preliminary pond feeding trial, growth and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of the fish fed the FCM diet were significantly higher than the commercial control diet. Survival and nutrient composition of the fish carcass were not adversely affected by the treatments. Hence, optimum dietary FCM inclusion level was determined at 5% of the milkfish diet replacing 100% copra meal and 12% SBM protein. However, in terms of economics, up to 20% FCM can be included in the diet replacing 56% SBM protein may be possible with growth comparable to the FCM-less control.
CitationApines-Amar, M. J. S., Coloso, R. M., Jaspe, C. J., Salvilla, J. M., Amar-Murillo, M. N. G., & Saclauso, C. A. (2015). Partial replacement of soybean meal with fermented copra meal in milkfish (Chanos chanos, Forsskal) diet.
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Supporting ASEAN good aquaculture practices: Utilization of alternative protein sources for aquafeed to minimize pressure on fishery resources REP Mamauag -
Fish for the People, 2016 - SEAFDEC SecretariatAquaculture industry of Southeast Asia has been expanding steadily as a result of an increasing demand of food fish in the region as well as in the global scale. Aside from its contribution to the world’s fisheries, the aquaculture industry creates employment opportunities and provides income for the region’s fish farmers, as well as produces fish which is a major component in the diets of peoples in Southeast Asia. However, the fast development of aquaculture had been viewed as threat to sustainable capture fisheries production as the widespread use of fish by-catch in aquaculture feeds results in overexploitation of the fishery resources and to certain extent degradation of the resources. Recognizing the importance and urgency of addressing such concern, the Senior Officials of the ASEAN Member States responsible for fisheries adopted in June 2011, the Plan of Action on Sustainable Fisheries for Food security for the ASEAN Region Towards 2020 which includes provision on the need to “improve the efficient use of aquatic feeds by strictly regulating the quality of manufactured feed and feed ingredients and support continued research for developing suitable alternative protein sources that will reduce dependence on fishmeal and other fish-based products.” Along with such declaration, the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department has been enhancing its R&D activities aimed at finding alternatives to fishmeal as feed ingredients in aquaculture feed formulations.
Status on development and use of alternative dietary ingredients in aquaculture feed formulations in Viet Nam VA Tuan - In MR Catacutan, RM Coloso & BO Acosta (Eds.), Development and Use of Alternative Dietary Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation … Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation, 9-11 December 2014, Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar, 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThis paper reviewed fish catch production and estimated demand of aquafeed, fish meal, fish oil, soybean meal in Viet Nam for year 2013. Fish catch production was around 2.8 million metric tons (mt) while marine fish production was 1.9 million mt. Estimated marine trash fish production was 0.8 million mt with over 100 species including the dominant species anchovy (Stolephorus spp.), lizard fish (Saurida spp.) and pony fish (Leistognathus spp.). Approximately 0.5 million mt of marine trash fish was used for livestock, aquaculture and fish meal. Local marine fish meal consisting of protein content from 50 to 68% and catfish byproduct meal containing protein level from 50 to 60% were available. Based on FCR values of 5 major species including catfish, black tiger shrimp, white leg shrimp, Asian seabass, and snake head, aquafeed production was estimated at around 2.5 million mt. Marine fish oil/squid liver oil requirement was from 15.5 to 31 thousand mt. Fish meal demand was from 252 and 430 thousand mt. Almost all fish meal and marine fish oil used in aquafeed were imported. Moreover, soybean and other plant ingredients are potential alternative sources to replace fish meal and fish oil. Vietnamese farmers produced 168 thousand mt soybean while soybean demand amounts for aquafeed were from 693 to 1,140 thousand mt. In 2013, feedmills imported approximately 3 million mt of soybean meal (cake) from many countries in the world. Some other plant protein sources which were also imported, have good nutrient profiles but they contain some anti-nutritional factors. In the future, research on replacement of fish meal and fish oil with plant and animal by-product sources and feed additives for aquafeed should be studied. In particular, the management of local fish meal plants and capture fishery should be improved.
Conference paperM Boonyaratpalin - In MR Catacutan, RM Coloso & BO Acosta (Eds.), Development and Use of Alternative Dietary Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation … Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation, 9-11 December 2014, Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar, 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterFish meal (FM) is the best and main protein source for fish and shrimp feed because of the favorable amino acid profile, highly unsaturated fatty acids, palatability and absence of antinutritional factors. Aquaculture production has increased (about 8-9% a year) and is expected to increase further at the same rate to meet the demand for increase world population and health concern. In this connection, more aquafeed is required. Aquafeed rely much on fish meal (FM) and fish oil (FO) for the supply of major essential nutrients (essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, mineral and attractant). Therefore, more FM is required. However, world fish meal production has been relatively static in the last 15 years and is unlikely to increase further, coupled with public pressure on sustainable feed (fish in fish out ratio or fish meal independent ratio). Thus, levels of FM use in fish feed will have to be reduced and replaced by alternative protein sources for a sustainable increase in aquaculture production. Therefore, the identification and development of alternative feed ingredients that can replace FM is recognized as an international research priority. Consequently, several international integrated projects have been established in Europe, USA and Australia to reduce fish meal and fish oil in fish feeds. A European integrated project involving 14 countries, 32 partners with 4 major programs has been established to develop feeds from sustainable alternatives to fish meal and fish oil to produce safe, healthy seafood; assess the health benefits of fish farmed on the new diets; assess the safety of fish farmed on the new diets; assess perceptions regarding farmed fish and to devise a framework to communicate the risk and benefit of consuming farmed fish to the public and other stake holders. The strategic goal of this project is to tailor aquaculture feeds to produce high-quality fish with significantly reduced use of fish meal (FM) and fish oil (FO).