Limit of colour vision in dim light in larvae of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii
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Colour vision depends on sufficient ambient light and becomes ineffective at a particular low light intensity. It is not known how decapod crustaceans see colour in dim light. In the present study we investigated the colour vision threshold in larvae of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii in a tank under natural illumination. Plastic beads of different colours (blue, red, yellow and white) in various combinations were suspended in the tank. The larvae swam straight toward the beads and gathered around them. The number of larvae was highest on the blue and white beads. The luminance in the tank was then gradually decreased by covering it with different numbers of layers of black cloth, and the response of the larvae to the beads was video-recorded under infrared illumination. The preference for blue and white beads remained manifest as the luminance was reduced from 418 to 0.07 cd/m2, but not at 0.02 cd/m2, indicating a colour vision threshold between 0.07 and 0.02 cd/m2. The larvae have apposition compound eyes with large optical parameters, comparable to those of apposition eyes of nocturnal insects, which presumably capture more light and show enhanced sensitivity, enabling the larvae to see colour in dim light.
CitationKawamura, G., Bagarinao, T. U., Yong, A. S. K., Faisal, A. B., & Lim, L.-S. (2018). Limit of colour vision in dim light in larvae of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.
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Colour preference and colour vision of the larvae of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii G Kawamura, T Bagarinao, ASK Yong, IMX Jeganathan & LS Lim -
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 2016 - ElsevierThis paper reports on the innate colour preference and colour vision in the hatchery-reared larvae (10–16 days old, stages IV–VIII) of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man) based on their response to coloured beads in a grey-walled tank under natural illumination. Plastic beads (4.1 mm in diameter) of different colours (dark blue, light blue, light green, yellow, red, white, black, and grey) in various combinations were suspended in the water 5 cm from the water surface and 12–20 cm from the tank walls where the larvae rested in the absence of aeration. The larvae swam head first straight toward the beads and gathered around them. The number of larvae was highest around the dark blue, light blue, and white beads; lowest around the black, red, and light green beads; and moderate around the yellow bead. Tests with different colours in combination with three shades of grey indicated that the larvae of M. rosenbergii discriminated colours by chromaticity. The preference for blue seemed to be an innate rather than a learned ability since the larvae did not prefer the yellow and red beads that were more similar to the colours of the egg custard and the Artemia nauplii on which they had been reared.
ArticleMany demersal fish species undergo vertical shifts in habitats during ontogeny especially after larval metamorphosis. The visual spectral sensitivity shifts with the habitat, indicating a change in colour vision. Colour vision depends on sufficient ambient light and becomes ineffective at a particular low light intensity. It is not known how fishes see colour in dim light. By means of a behavioural experiment on larval African catfish Clarias gariepinus in the laboratory, we determined colour vision and colour discrimination in dim light. Light-adapted larvae were subjected to classical conditioning to associate a reward feed with a green or a red stimulus placed among 7 shades of grey. The larvae learned this visual task after 70 and 90 trials. A different batch of larvae were trained to discriminate between green and red and then tested for the ability to discriminate between these colours, as the light intensity was reduced. The larvae learned this visual task after 110 trials in bright light and were able to discriminate colours, as light was dimmed until 0.01 lx, the minimal illuminance measurable in this study, and similar to starlight. The retinae of the larvae were found to be light adapted at 0.01 lx; thus indicating cone-based colour vision at this illuminance. For comparison, three human subjects were tested under similar conditions and showed a colour vision threshold at between 1.5 and 0.1 lx. For the larvae of C. gariepinus, the ability of colour discrimination in dim light is probably due to its retinal tapetum, which could increase the sensitivity of cones.
Effects of salinity, aeration and light intensity on oil globule absorption, feeding incidence, growth and survival of early-stage grouper Epinephelus coioides larvae JD Toledo, NB Caberoy, GF Quinitio, CH Choresca & H Nakagawa -
Fisheries Science, 2002 - Springer VerlagA series of experiments were conducted to examine the effects of salinity, aeration and light intensity on oil globule absorption, feeding incidence, and growth and survival of early-stage Epinephelus coioides larvae. Newly hatched larvae were transferred to 40-L aquaria at a density of 1500 individuals/aquarium. Larvae were exposed to different levels of aeration (0 mL/min per L, 0.62 mL/min per L, 1.25 mL/min per L, 2.50 mL/min per L, or 3.75 mL/min per L); salinity (8 ppt, 16 ppt, 24 ppt, 32 ppt, or 40 ppt); and light intensity (0 lx, 120 lx, 230 lx, 500 lx, or 700 lx) for 4–6 days. Twenty larvae were sampled daily at 11:00 hours to measure for total length (TL), oil globule volume, and feeding incidence. Survival rates were determined by counting the total number of larvae remaining in each aquarium at the end of the experiment. Significantly higher survival rates (P < 0.05) were observed at aeration levels of 0.62 mL/min per L and 1.25 mL/min per L, at salinity levels of 16 ppt and 24 ppt, and at light intensities of 500 lx and 700 lx. The influence of aeration level, salinity and light intensity on oil globule absorption, feeding incidence, and growth and survival of early-stage grouper larvae are discussed.