Assessment of grouper resources around Zamboanga City and Basilan, Philippines
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A total of 2,643 kg of groupers were collected from six markets (96% of the biomass) and from prescribed fish traps in three fishing grounds (106 kg, 4%) around Zamboanga City and Basilan from November 1993 to October 1994. The collection included 26 species in seven genera: Aethaloperca, Cephalopholis, Cromileptis, Epinephelus, Niphon, Plectropomus, and Variola. The three species of highest biomass were Epinephelus fasciatus (26%), Cephalopholis sonnerati (14%) and Cromileptis altivelis (13%). The least biomass was contributed by Epinephelus sexfasciatus (0.1%), Plectropomus areolatus (0.1%), and Cephalopholis sexmaculatus (0.3%). Grouper biomass was lower from November to April and greater from May to October. Groupers caught by the prescribed fish traps were mostly Epinephelus merra (50% of the total). The highest catch of grouper was 0.8 kg/fish trap around Sta. Cruz Island in July, and the highest catch of all demersal fishes was 7 kg/trap around Malamawi Island in September. On average, groupers made up less than 10% of the monthly catch of fish traps. The groupers collected from the markets and from the fish traps averaged 28 cm in total length— all young juveniles. Cromileptes altivelis (average 38 cm) were the largest individuals and Plectropomus spp. (36 cm) similarly so. The largest C. altivelis (1.5 kg) was caught in December and the smallest (0.8 kg) in April and August. The various Cephalopholis species averaged 31 cm, and the various Epinephelus species were smallest at 26 cm. Groupers were largest in December and smallest between January and May. Length-weight equations were derived for seven grouper species. Of the 78 grouper stomachs that were dissected, 52 were empty and 26 contained food, mainly crabs, anchovies, hermit crabs, soldierfish, squids, and shrimps. Groupers with mature and ripe varies had from 3,000 to 11,000 eggs per gram ovary.
Lasola, N. T., Samson, R. A., & Domingo, P. B. (2007). Assessment of grouper resources around Zamboanga City and Basilan, Philippines. In T. U. Bagarinao (Ed.), Research Output of the Fisheries Sector Program (Vol. 2. Reports on Fisheries and Aquaculture, pp. 105-108). Quezon City, Philippines: Bureau of Agricultural Research, Department of Agriculture.
PublisherBureau of Agricultural Research, Department of Agriculture
Percoid fisheries; Fisheries; Catch-effort; Biomass; Fishing grounds; Trap nets; Seasonal distribution; Population number; Length-weight relationships; Stomach content; Sexual maturity; Fecundity; Groupers; Epinephelus; Epinephelus fasciatus; Cephalopholis sonnerati; Cromileptes altivelis; Epinephelus sexfasciatus; Plectropomus areolatus; Cephalopholis sexmaculata; Philippines
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BookBureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards - 2009 - Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries StandardsThis Philippine National Standard for live, chilled/frozen grouper identifies the Philippine species of grouper, specifies their essential composition and quality factors (including size classification and quality characteristics), provides the presentation, packaging and labeling requirements, indicates the methods sampling, examination and analyses, and defines the types of defectives. It is hoped that this standard accomplishes our two pronged goal of protecting consumer health and making the Philippine fish and fishery products globally competitive.
BookAsia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, & Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center - 2001 - Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation; Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThe groupers (Family Serranidae) are among the most popular species in the live reef food fish industry in the Asia-Pacific region. Groupers are generally fast growing, hardy, suitable for intensive culture, and with excellent characteristics for processing. The high demand for these fishes is due to their unique culinary attributes and scarcity. In 1997, the Asia-Pacific region contributed about 90% to the total world aquaculture production. The regional production of farmed grouper was estimated at 15,000 tons, with China as the biggest producer contributing 8,000 tons followed closely by Indonesia. Other countries in the region commonly produce 1,000-2,000 tons annually in 1990- 1997. Groupers are generally cultured in floating net cages or earthen ponds, but cage culture is more common in Southeast Asia. Grouper pond production is becoming an attractive alternative to intensive shrimp culture in countries where management problems have forced growers to abandon shrimp farming. Although grouper culture is widespread in Asia and the Pacific, its continued development is constrained by the limited availability of fingerlings. Most economies, with the recent exception of Chinese Taipei, rely almost totally on wild-caught fry and fingerlings for stocking. This demand for wild seeds has led to unsustainable and illegal collection practices such as the use of cyanide to capture large numbers of seed with relatively less investment in time and effort. The inadequate supply of seed is further aggravated by the lack of appropriate handling techniques during collection, transport and storage of collected fish, and sometimes by an unregulated management of the wild stocks. There is also the lack of appropriate techniques for efficient grouper culture to marketable sizes. A major production constraint is heavy mortality of groupers during the collection and culture phases due to handling stress and diseases. The utilization of non-destructive devices for grouper collection, proper fish handling and increased efficiency in culture management can result to socio-economic and environmental benefits. A well-developed grouper culture operation complemented by appropriate wild grouper fishery management can provide sustainable employment to many people – from marginal fishers to farmers to traders. Grouper fisheries based on illegal or destructive fishing practices underlines the urgent need for habitat protection and sustainable utilization of natural resources. The objective of this manual is to provide a farmer-friendly practical guide for grouper farmers in the Asia-Pacific economies. It is hoped that this manual will enhance farmers’ ability to culture and handle grouper, as well as to prevent and manage disease outbreaks.
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