Use of soybean meal and rice bran in formulated diets for the grouper Epinephelus coioides
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Two diets were formulated to include 8–14% soybean meal and 9–18% rice bran, 34–40% fish meal, 4–5% mussel meal, and 7–8% Acetes shrimp meal, and 11–13% cod liver oil. Soy bean meal and rice bran were included at 4:1 ratio together to replace 12.5% and 25% of the animal protein sources in the two diets. The two diets were prepared in dry D form and moist M form. The four test diets, D12.5, M12.5, D25, and M25 diets had 40–42% protein and 4,000 kcal/g gross energy. The control diet used was a dry diet with 44% crude protein and 4,260 kcal/g, made with 30% Peruvian fish meal, 8% squid meal, 22% Acetes shrimp meal, 8% cod liver oil, 8% soybean oil, but no plant protein sources. The five diets were fed to juvenile grouper (mean weights ranging from 1.63 ± 0.47 to 2.41 ± 0.91 g) in indoor 400 L concrete tanks (10 fish per tank). After 10 weeks, growth, feed intake, feed conversion ratios (1.2–2.2), and survival (60–80%) of juvenile grouper were not significantly different between the test diets and the control. The carcass composition of the harvested grouper was not significantly different among diets. Protein utilization was best among the fish fed the test diet D12.5. This study showed that soybean meal and rice bran at 4:1 ratio can be included in formulated diets for grouper to replace 12.5% to 25% of the animal protein sources. However, the results for the test diets may also have been due to other factors - the high fish meal content, inclusion of mussel meal, and increase in cod liver oil.
Marasigan, E. T., Miag-ao, S. L., & Serrano, A. E. (2007). Use of soybean meal and rice bran in formulated diets for the grouper Epinephelus coioides. In T. U. Bagarinao (Ed.), Research Output of the Fisheries Sector Program (Vol. 2. Reports on Fisheries and Aquaculture, pp. 114-118). Quezon City, Philippines: Bureau of Agricultural Research, Department of Agriculture.
PublisherBureau of Agricultural Research, Department of Agriculture
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Book | Conference publication
Development and use of alternative ingredients or fish meal substitutes in aquaculture feed formulation: Proceedings of the ASEAN Regional Technical Consultation on Development and Use of Alternative Dietary Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation MR Catacutan, RM Coloso & BO Acosta (Eds.) - 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterRecognizing the need for a concerted effort to follow-up on this priority issue of the ASEAN on aquaculture feed development and utilization. SEAFDEC (Aquaculture Department and Secretariat) and the Government of Myanmar organized the 'Regional Technical Consultation (RTC) on development and Use of Alternative Dietary Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation'. The meeting was convened with the main purpose of providing a forum for charting the regional priorities and future directions on feed development, particularly on the use of alternative feed ingredients or protein substitutes. The specific objectives were to: (i) review the ASEAN-SEAFDEC member country status, constraints associated with developing alternative dietary ingredients for aquaculture feed; (ii) identify specific advances being made in the region with respect to the development of alternative aquaculture feed ingredients; and (iii) define approaches or initiatives supporting catch reduction of low-value/trash fish; (iv) formulate relevant policy recommendations (regional and country-specific) for effective development and utilization of aquaculture feeds; and (v) enhance cooperation among member countries and relevant stakeholders on initiatives that support sustainable aquaculture practices, particularly on feeds. This publication presents the outputs of the RTC. The country reports and review papers presented during the conference which are contained in this volume are cited individually.
Replacement of fish meal by animal by-product meals in a practical diet for growout culture of grouper (Epinephelus coioides) OM Millamena - In MA Rimmer, S McBride & KC Williams (Eds.), Advances in grouper aquaculture, 2004 - Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research
Series: ACIAR Monograph 110This study was conducted to develop compounded feeds having a low content of fish meal for juvenile grouper and as an alternative to trash fish feeding. Epinephelus coioides juveniles were stocked in 36 units of 250-litre tanks at 25 fish/tank. Eight dietary treatments representing increasing (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80 and 100%) percentage replacements of fish meal protein with 4:1 combination of meat meal and blood meal were tested in quadruplicate groups of fish arranged in a completely randomized design. Weight gain and specific growth rate (SGR), survival, food conversion rate (FCR) and body composition of fish were determined. Up to 80% of fish meal protein could be replaced by processed meat meal and blood meal, with no adverse effects on growth, survival and feed conversion efficiency of E. coioides juveniles. Use of animal byproduct meals as protein source substantially lowered the level of fish meal required in the juvenile grouper diet. The diet could be effectively used as a substitute for trash fish feeding, thereby reducing the requirements for fishery resource. From an economic standpoint, replacement of fish meal with cheaper animal byproduct meals in a practical diet for grouper could alleviate the problem of low fish meal availability and high cost.
Evaluation of leguminous seed meals and leaf meals as plant protein sources in diets for juvenile Penaeus indicus PS Eusebio & RM Coloso -
The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh, 1998 - Society of Israeli Aquaculture and Marine BiotechnologyThe potential of locally available legumes (white cowpea, Vigna unguiculata, and green mung-bean, Vigna radiata) and leaf meals (papaya, Carica papaya, and cassava, Manihut esculenta) in combination with defatted soybean meal as protein sources was evaluated in juvenile Penaeus indicus. The feedstuffs were included in practical diets for P. indicus, replacing 9% of the protein in the basal diet. Juvenile P. indicus (mean initial weight 0.08±0.01 g) were fed the practical diets for 61 days. Shrimp fed the control diet had the highest weight gain and specific growth rate, which did not significantly differ (p>0.05) from those of shrimp fed white cowpea meal, papaya leaf meal and cassava leaf meal. Survival of the control shrimp was significantly higher (p<0,05) than that of shrimp fed cassava and papaya leaf meals but comparable to that of shrimp fed white cowpea meal. The growth of shrimp given green mungbean meal was comparable to that of shrimp fed papaya leaf meal, however the shrimp fed mungbean meal had the lowest survival. The apparent protein digestibility (APD) of white cowpea meal (87%) was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of the control (82%) and cassava leaf meal (77%) based diets . However, the APD of the white cowpea meal based diet was comparable to those of the papaya leaf meal and green mungbean meal based diets. Results suggest that, besides digestibility, other factors such as the amino acid balance of the diet and the amount of anti-nutritional factors may influence the growth and survival of P. indicus.