Paradigm shifts in mangrove rehabilitation in Southeast Asia: Focus on the Philippines
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Mangrove rehabilitation has a long history in the Philippines dating back to the 1930s. The standard practice is the planting of bakhaw Rhizophora propagules by paid community members (or volunteers) in seafront sites selected during spring low tides. In 2009, the Community-based Mangrove Rehabilitation Project (CMRP) of the Zoological Society of London was established to: (a) rehabilitate abandoned government-leased fi shponds into healthy mangroves; (b) increase coastal protection, food resources, and livelihood income through sustainable management of mangroves; and (c) re-establish the legally mandated mangrove ‘greenbelt’ along the coast. Over four years, the CMRP has planted the following in various partner sites in Panay and Guimaras: (a) 58,000 seeds or wildings bagged in nurseries by 3,000 participants, and (b) 99,000 seedlings/wildings outplanted by 4,000 planters in ~20 ha of greenbelts and abandoned ponds. The species are mainly bungalon/piapi Avicennia marina, pagatpat Sonneratia alba, and to a lesser extent, bakhaw Rhizophora. The planters include high school/college students and teachers, members of people’s organizations, barangay and municipal government employees, BFAR and DENR staff , and civil society organizations. The extensive CMRP trials have yielded signifi cant learnings, many of them paradigm shifts from present protocols, as included in the 20 Golden Rules of Mangrove Rehabilitation. A manual that documents these learnings with concrete examples based on CMRP monitoring of fi xed quadrats and other standardized protocols, is currently in press. Some of these protocols are the following: (a) planting site: shift from seafront sites to abandoned ponds (whenever possible); (b) time of site selection: during (low tide of) Neap Tide rather than Spring Tide; (c) species selection for seafront sites: the ecologically correct bungalon/piapi and pagatpat, rather than the easy-to-plant but unsuitable bakhaw; (d) sources of planting materials: use of available wildings is harvesting nature’s excess (equivalent to withdrawing from ‘seedling banks’), which also saves time; (e) labor: “No Pay” planting is based on the premise that labor contributed by the community provides the basis for ownership, thereby obligating them to nurture the plants to maturity and validating their role as de facto managers of mangrove resources. Similar mangrove initiatives have been observed elsewhere in Southeast Asia, as follows: (a) barriers/breakwater in MaIaysia, Vietnam, and Thailand; (b) use of wildings in Malaysia; and (c) mangrove ecoparks/reserves in Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam and Brunei.
Primavera, J. H., Guzman, A. M. T., Coching, J. D., Loma, R. J. A., Curnick, D., & Koldewey, H. J. (2014). Paradigm shifts in mangrove rehabilitation in Southeast Asia: Focus on the Philippines. In H. G. Palis, S. A. Pasicolan, & C. I. Villamor (Eds.), Proceedings of the 1st ASEAN Congress on Mangrove Research and Development, 3-7 December 2012, Manila, Philippines (pp. 17-30). Manila, Philippines: Department of Environment and Natural Resources - Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau (DENR-ERDB).
PublisherDepartment of Environment and Natural Resources - Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau (DENR-ERDB)
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Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 1998 - ElsevierA total of 4845 penaeids belonging to nine species—Metapenaeus anchistus, M. ensis, M. moyebi, M. philippinensis, Penaeus merguiensis, P. monodon, P. semisulcatus, P. latisulcatus and Metapenaeopsis palmensis—were collected by pocket seine monthly over 13 months from mangrove and non-mangrove sites in Guimaras, Philippines. The restricted distribution of the three dominant species—M. ensisandP. merguiensisto the brackish water riverine mangrove, andM. anchistusto the high-salinity island mangrove and tidal flat—is probably related to different salinity and substrate preferences. Abundance and size composition of the major species suggest a strong nursery role for the riverine mangrove (high juvenile densities, relatively small sizes year-round), limited nursery use of the island mangrove (fewer shrimps, larger size ranges, presence of maturing females) and a non-nursery use (e.g. foraging) in the tidal flat. Penaeid recruitment to the river had two peaks in November and May when the average salinity was ∼20 (Practical Salinity Scale) and water temperatures were high (30–31 °C). The spatio-temporal pattern of penaeid species in Guimaras shows partitioning across habitats and seasonal recruitment influenced by physical and biological factors.
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Fish for the People, 2004 - Secretariat, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterAlthough multilateral agencies in Southeast Asia have long been promoting that mangroves, and other wetlands, are wastelands to be put into better use, such as conversion to ponds. However, there is a need for Mangrove Friendly Aquaculture (MFA) technology in the intertidal forest, or swamp, which does not require the clearing of trees. MFA may be defined on 2 levels: 1) silvofisheries or aquasilviculture, where the low density culture of crabs, shrimps and fish is integrated with mangroves; and, 2) mangrove filters where mangrove forests are used to absorb the excess nutrients in the effluents from high-density culture ponds. A review is made of MFA practices belonging to the first category. Discussion is on a country basis, moving from traditional systems in Indonesia, to the introduced technologies in Indonesia, Vietnam, the Philippines and Malaysia. It is hoped that this review will be of use to scientists, aquaculturists, policy makers and governmental/NGOs interested in making aquaculture more ecologically sound and socially responsible.
Fish habitats in a small, human-impacted Sibunag mangrove creek (Guimaras, Philippines): a basis for mangrove resource enhancement The fish assemblage of a small, open access mangrove creek highly influenced by aquaculture farms, was studied for the first time in the Philippines as a baseline of such system as well as examining the degree of ecological disturbance among fish habitats, as basis for the necessity to rehabilitate mangrove resources aiming to balance human activities and mangrove functioning. In total, 475 fishes (total weight = 3875 g) were captured and 50 species representing 32 families were identified. Thirty two species were represented by small numbers (< 5 individuals). Commercial species was considerably high (~23 species) but majority were low grade commercial species. Total species, species diversity and fish abundance consistently showed a decreasing pattern from outside creek to inner creek. Fish habitats exhibited substantial differences following a distinct spatial segregation of fish communities, a dominance of non-shared species and a minimal species overlapping inside the creek, which is attributable to the existing mangrove fragmentation associated with aquaculture ponds in the area. Increasing levels of disturbances were observed within the creek indicating ‘stress’ as a result of overutilization of mangroves by aquaculture farms. Our results confirmed the need to rehabilitate mangrove resources in this area. The development of mangrove resources through reforestation, coupled by strict regulation of fishing activities and aquaculture ponds will reduce ecological stress in the area and regain gradually a robust mangrove functioning that will improve fish diversity, fisheries and productivity of adjacent coastal systems by creating a suitable fish nursery, feeding ground and refuge habitat.