The essential nutrients: Minerals
MetadataShow full item record
This section discusses the macro, micro, and trace minerals; their physiologic functions; and deficiency signs and symptoms. It also gives a summary of the mineral functions and mineral requirements of fishes and shrimp.
Millamena, O. M. (2002). The essential nutrients: Minerals. In O. M. Millamena, R. M. Coloso, & F. P. Pascual (Eds.), Nutrition in Tropical Aquaculture: Essentials of fish nutrition, feeds, and feeding of tropical aquatic species (pp. 57–63). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center. http://hdl.handle.net/10862/3315
- Classification of minerals
- General functions of minerals
- Mineral availability Macrominerals
- Mineral supplementation of practical fish diets
- Mineral requirements of fish
- Guide questions
- Suggested readings
PublisherAquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Conference paperF Piedad-Pascual - In Advances in Tropical Aquaculture: Workshop at Tahiti, French Polynesia, February 20 - March 4, 1989, 1990 - Institut Francais de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la Mer
Series: Actes de Colloque 9Marine shrimps absorb minerals from their aquatic environment aside from the minerals that come from the food they eat. Thus, the dietary requirement of shrimps for certain minerals will depend on the amounts and availability of these minerals in the aquatic environment. Dietary sources for growth may be necessary due to losses during moltings. Most of the dietary studies for mineral requirements have been done under laboratory conditions with purified or semi-purified diets and hardly any information is available under practical culture conditions. Most published data for mineral requirements are for juvenile Penaeus japonicus. There are few data for P. monodon, P. californiensis, P. merguiensis, P. aztecus. Calcium and phosphorus are the minerals that have been studied the most. These two have been found to be related to problems of soft-shelling in P. monodon. Apparently calcium and phosphorus requirements are within the range of 1 to 2%. The ratio of calcium to phosphorus in the diet is also an important factor in the efficient utilization of both minerals. It seems that a 1 :1 ratio provides for good growth. Phosphorus deficiency results in reduced growth while lack of magnesium brings about decreased growth, poor survival and reduced feed efficiency in P. japonicus. Iron toxicity has also been observed in P. japonicus. It might not be necessary to include some minerals in the diet of penaeids.
Growth response of cultured larvae of silver therapon Leiopotherapon plumbeus (Kner, 1864) in outdoor tanks in relation to fertilizer type and fish density This study evaluated the effects of fertilizer type and fish density on early growth and survival of silver therapon Leiopotherapon plumbeus (Kner, 1864) larvae reared in outdoor tanks. In the first experiment, larvae (1.92 ± 0.09 mm total length) were stocked into nine, 4 m3 tanks at an initial density of 0.5 larvae L-1 and reared for 42 days at an ambient temperature of 28.8–30.7°C. Three treatments with three replicates each were compared: organic (chicken manure, OF) or inorganic fertilizers (ammonium phosphate, IF) applied once every 2 weeks, and the unfertilized (NF) tanks serving as the control group. Water quality, zooplankton densities, survival or growth of L. plumbeus larvae did not vary significantly in either fertilized or unfertilized tanks. Fertilization resulted in elevated nutrient concentrations, which did affect survival (2.10%–6.07%) of the fish larvae. In the second experiment, larvae were stocked at densities of 0.4 or 0.6 larvae L-1 in tanks fertilized at 4–5 days interval with OF and IF for 30 days. Growth performance of L. plumbeus larvae was affected by fish density, with significantly larger (20.04 ± 2.65 mm in total length) and higher specific growth rate (SGR; 6.97 ± 0.48% day-1) at 0.4 larvae L-1 than at 0.6 L-1. Fry production did not vary significantly between fish density treatment groups given the same fertilizer types, but survival rates were improved at 0.4 L-1. Together, production of L. plumbeus larvae in outdoor tanks can be optimized at a lower stocking density, regardless of the type of fertilizer used.