The essential nutrients: Minerals
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This section discusses the macro, micro, and trace minerals; their physiologic functions; and deficiency signs and symptoms. It also gives a summary of the mineral functions and mineral requirements of fishes and shrimp.
Millamena, O. M. (2002). The essential nutrients: Minerals. In O. M. Millamena, R. M. Coloso, & F. P. Pascual (Eds.), Nutrition in Tropical Aquaculture: Essentials of fish nutrition, feeds, and feeding of tropical aquatic species (pp. 57–63). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center.
- Classification of minerals
- General functions of minerals
- Mineral availability Macrominerals
- Mineral supplementation of practical fish diets
- Mineral requirements of fish
- Guide questions
- Suggested readings
PublisherAquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
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Growth response of cultured larvae of silver therapon Leiopotherapon plumbeus (Kner, 1864) in outdoor tanks in relation to fertilizer type and fish density This study evaluated the effects of fertilizer type and fish density on early growth and survival of silver therapon Leiopotherapon plumbeus (Kner, 1864) larvae reared in outdoor tanks. In the first experiment, larvae (1.92 ± 0.09 mm total length) were stocked into nine, 4 m3 tanks at an initial density of 0.5 larvae L-1 and reared for 42 days at an ambient temperature of 28.8–30.7°C. Three treatments with three replicates each were compared: organic (chicken manure, OF) or inorganic fertilizers (ammonium phosphate, IF) applied once every 2 weeks, and the unfertilized (NF) tanks serving as the control group. Water quality, zooplankton densities, survival or growth of L. plumbeus larvae did not vary significantly in either fertilized or unfertilized tanks. Fertilization resulted in elevated nutrient concentrations, which did affect survival (2.10%–6.07%) of the fish larvae. In the second experiment, larvae were stocked at densities of 0.4 or 0.6 larvae L-1 in tanks fertilized at 4–5 days interval with OF and IF for 30 days. Growth performance of L. plumbeus larvae was affected by fish density, with significantly larger (20.04 ± 2.65 mm in total length) and higher specific growth rate (SGR; 6.97 ± 0.48% day-1) at 0.4 larvae L-1 than at 0.6 L-1. Fry production did not vary significantly between fish density treatment groups given the same fertilizer types, but survival rates were improved at 0.4 L-1. Together, production of L. plumbeus larvae in outdoor tanks can be optimized at a lower stocking density, regardless of the type of fertilizer used.
ArticleGamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has been shown to enhance the reproduction of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis Muller in stressful culture conditions. During the enrichment of rotifers for feeding to marine fish larvae, they are usually stressed as a result of exposure to different marine oils and high population densities. This typically results in decreased rotifer survival, reproduction and swimming activity. In the present study, we used GABA to increase rotifer reproduction and the swimming activity of rotifers in enrichment cultures. GABA treatment 24 h before high density enrichment enhanced reproduction during enrichment culture, but not when carried out simultaneously with enrichment. Swimming activity was not significantly affected by GABA treatment 24 h before or simultaneously with nutrient enrichment.