Recent Submissions

  • Book | Conference publication

    Resource enhancement and sustainable aquaculture practices in Southeast Asia: challenges in responsible production of aquatic species : proceedings of the international workshop on resource enhancement and sustainable aquaculture practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA) 

    MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.) - 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The conference was held in order to promote and augment regional initiatives on resource enhancement and sustainable aquaculture practices, and to contribute to poverty alleviation, livelihood and food security in Southeast Asia. The contributions of the selected participants during the conference which are contained in this volume are cited individually.
  • Book

    Health management of milkfish Chanos chanos 

    ER Cruz-Lacierda, EG Estante, EGT de Jesus-Ayson & VL Corre Jr. - 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    This monograph provides updated information on diseases of marine and brackishwater cultured milkfish in the Philippines. The information presented here is largely based on the results of a three-year research project on milkfish at the University of the Philippines Visayas funded by the Department of Science and Technology (DOST). The project involved surveillance and monitoring of hatchery, nursery and grow-out operations for occurrence of diseases as well as on disease diagnosis, prevention and control. Previously documented reports in the Philippines and in other documents, both published and unpublished, are also included in this monograph. The diseases are discussed on a culture phase basis, that is, disease problems encountered in hatchery-reared larvae and fry are listed first, followed by diseases observed in fingerlings and juveniles grown in nursery and grow-out culture areas, and adult stages maintained in broodstock facilities. Information regarding the causative agent, diagnostic procedures, and methods of prevention and control for each disease are provided, if available.
  • Book

    Field guide to mangrove identification and community structure analysis 

    MJH Lebata-Ramos - 2013 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The mangrove field guide is a 32-page field guide with a one page introduction on mangroves, followed by a key to mangrove genera and species (with colored pictures of the whole plant and plant parts), then a definition of important terms used in the key, species code for use during mangrove community structure, instructions on how to conduct mangrove community structure analysis plus the formulas for the different indices (relative density, dominance, frequency; importance value and species diversity) and a sample data sheet. The guide, measuring 9 cm x 14 cm, is printed on PVC material hence it can get wet, soaked or be left in the water for days.
  • Book | Conference publication

    Sustainable aquaculture development for food security in Southeast Asia towards 2020. Proceedings of the Regional Technical Consultation on Sustainable Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia Towards 2020. 

    BO Acosta, RM Coloso, EGT de Jesus-Ayson & JD Toledo (Eds.) - 2011 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    This publication represents the proceedings of the Regional Technical Consultation (RTC) on Aquaculture held in Bangkok, Thailand last 17-19 March 2010. The RTC was convened by the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center Aquaculture Department (SEAFDEC/AQD) as part of the preparatory undertakings for the ASEAN-SEAFDEC Conference on Fisheries held in June 2011. The main objectives of the RTC were to follow-up the developments of aquaculture in Southeast Asia after the 2001 ASEAN-SEAFDEC Millennium Conference on Fisheries and to define the strategic actions for the region s sustainable aquaculture development in the next decade. These proceedings contain 10 country papers and a summary status of implementation of the Resolution and Plan of Actions on six themes (supply of good quality seeds, environment-friendly aquaculture, getting out of the fish meal trap, healthy and wholesome aquaculture, biotechnology and rural aquaculture) which are the outcomes of the 2001 ASEAN-SEAFDEC Millennium Conference on Fisheries. It also presents the thematic papers and a synopsis of discussions on issues and recommendations on four thematic areas: (i) meeting social and economic challenges in aquaculture; (ii) quality seed production for sustainable aquaculture; (iii) healthy and wholesome aquaculture; and (iv) protecting the environment and adapting to climate change. These recommendations are expected to provide baseline information and directions in formulating the Resolution and Plan of Action (aquaculture component) for food security in Southeast Asia towards 2020.
  • Book

    Reforming Philippine science 

    RK Suarez & F Lacanilao - 2010 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    This book discusses the importance of science as the foundation of technological development and economic progress. It also describes the past and current situation of scientific research in the Philippines. The book also illustrates the usefulness of a properly published scientific research to the entire country.
  • Book

    Research and development for sustainable aquaculture in Southeast Asia : SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department strategic plans 2009-2012 

    SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department - 2009 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    Outlines the strategic plans of the SEAFDEC/AQD for the years 2009 to 2012. In it, the new mission statement is presented as well as the goals, objectives, and targets of its various research, training, information dissemination, and administrative thrusts.
  • Conference publication | Book

    Proceedings of the Regional Technical Consultation on Stock Enhancement for Threatened Species of International Concern, Iloilo City, Philippines, 13-15 July 2005 

    JH Primavera, ET Quinitio & MR Eguia - In Proceedings of the Regional Technical Consultation on Stock Enhancement for Threatened Species of International Concern, Iloilo City, Philippines, 13-15 July 2005, 2006 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    This 150-page book documents the proceedings of an experts’ consultation held at AQD in July 2005. It contains nine review papers and seven country papers.
  • Book

    Handbook of mangroves in the Philippines - Panay 

    JH Primavera, RB Sadaba, MJHL Lebata & JP Altamirano - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    A 106-page guide is a user-friendly presentation of technical botanical description and illustrations of Philippine mangrove species in Panay Island, Guimaras and Aurora Province. Vegetative and reproductive structures of 34 mangrove species that are readily observed in the field are emphasized and presented in color photographs and as graphic icons. Also discussed: importance of mangroves; mangrove decline and legislation; conservation and rehabilitation; and mangrove-friendly aquaculture.
  • Book | Conference publication

    Transboundary fish diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurrence, surveillance, research and training. 

    CR Lavilla-Pitogo & K Nagasawa (Eds.) - 2004 - Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
  • Book

    Laboratory manual of standardized methods for antimicrobial sensitivity tests for bacteria isolated from aquatic animals and environment 

    L Ruangpan & EA Tendencia - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center.
    The manual is one of the important outputs of a collection of studies related to antibiotic usage in order to come up with guidelines for its prudent usage. It offers a complete guide for testing bacterial susceptibility and resistance through the use of simple techniques for disk agar diffusion tests, and a guide to do a more thorough study to test therapeutic levels using microbial inhibitory concentration.
  • Book

    Laboratory manual of standardized methods for the analysis of pesticide and antibiotic residue in aquaculture products 

    IG Borlongan & JNP Chuan - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The manual contains guidelines on the detection of antibiotic and pesticide residues in aquaculture products. Different methods for the analysis of the two chemicals are discussed. The manual is expected to benefit all those who are involved in the monitoring and enforcement aspects of chemical residue limits in aquaculture products in the region.
  • Book chapter

    Chapter 2. Detection of pesticide residues in aquaculture products 

    IG Borlongan - In Laboratory manual of standardized methods for the analysis of pesticide and antibiotic residue in aquaculture products, 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Agricultural chemicals such as fertilizers and pesticides have made an important contribution to agriculture. Pesticides protect crops from pests and diseases. They have brought about large yield increases, and have helped ensure that the rise in food production has kept well ahead of the rise in population. However, there is a growing concern about the safe use of these chemicals, and the potential dangers to farmers who use them, the environment, and consumers. There is particular concern about pesticides, since almost all chemicals that can kill pests are also potentially damaging to human health.

    Legislation requires that pesticide use is appropriately controlled and maximum residue levels (MRLs) not be exceeded. The level of pesticide residues in food raw materials is a measurable standard. But while residue analysis is essential for companies wishing to assure themselves that their products have been produced in accordance with best practice and within the law, it can be used to greatest effect when targeted at samples most likely to contain residues.

    Reliable residue analytical methods are necessary to measure the magnitude of residue in a seafood, and to enforce legal residue limits (tolerances). Sample preparation and extraction, clean up of extracts and pesticide detection are the main procedures in pesticide residue analysis. There is an interplay among these factors which should be considered in the choice of a particular method.
  • Book chapter

    Chapter 2. Disk diffusion method 

    EA Tendencia - In Laboratory manual of standardized methods for antimicrobial sensitivity tests for bacteria isolated from aquatic animals and environment, 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Disk diffusion method is based on the principle that antibiotic-impregnated disk, placed on agar previously inoculated with the test bacterium, pick-up moisture and the antibiotic diffuse radially outward through the agar medium producing an antibiotic concentration gradient. The concentration of the antibiotic at the edge of the disk is high and gradually diminishes as the distance from the disk increases to a point where it is no longer inhibitory for the organism, which then grows freely. A clear zone or ring is formed around an antibiotic disk after incubation if the agent inhibits bacterial growth.
  • Book chapter

    Chapter 1. Bacterial isolation, identification and storage 

    L Ruangpan & EA Tendencia - In Laboratory manual of standardized methods for antimicrobial sensitivity tests for bacteria isolated from aquatic animals and environment, 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Bacterial isolation, purification and identification are the first steps to bacteriological studies. Isolation is done to obtain pure bacterial cultures. Bacteria are usually isolated from fish kidney and spleen; and from the hepatopancreas, lymphoid organ and muscles of shrimp. These tissues are monitor organs that usually harbor the disease-causing bacteria during infection.
  • Book chapter

    Chapter 3. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) test and determination of antimicrobial resistant bacteria 

    L Ruangpan - In Laboratory manual of standardized methods for antimicrobial sensitivity tests for bacteria isolated from aquatic animals and environment, 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The agar dilution technique is used to measure qualitatively the in vitro activity of an antimicrobial agent against the test bacteria. In this method, graded amounts of antibiotics are incorporated in agar plates and inoculated in spots with the organisms under study. If the organism under study is susceptible to the incorporated antibiotic, no bacterial growth is expected in agar plates with higher amounts of the drugs. Bacterial growth is observed as the antibiotic concentration in the agar plate diminishes. Inhibition of growth at the minimum or lowest concentration of antibiotic is regarded as the end point.
  • Book chapter

    Chapter 1. Detection of antibiotic residues in aquaculture products 

    JNP Chuan - In Laboratory manual of standardized methods for the analysis of pesticide and antibiotic residue in aquaculture products, 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Aquacultured animals are under constant threat from bio-aggressors such as viruses, bacteria, parasites and fungi. These organisms harm either spontaneously or through aquatic animal husbandry practices, and often both. Indeed, it is generally recognized that disease problems follow the development of techniques for animal production.

    Consequently, fish culture uses a variety of chemicals that represent potential threats to the health of the cultured animal, indigenous biota, and even humans. Chemicals employed in aquaculture include the following:

    - Drugs used to treat disease (chemical therapeutants)

    - Chemicals introduced through construction materials

    - Hormones used to alter reproductive viability, sex, and growth rates

    Of these, chemotherapeutic drugs are the most harmful. Chemotherapeutic treatments are initiated after clinical signs of a disease appear in a population of fish. Chemicals used in construction and hormones are not considered because they are relatively non-toxic.

    The use of chemical therapeutants obviously leads to the transit of drugs and to their persistence in products intended for human consumption. It also leads to the release of drugs or their metabolites to the aquatic environment. Hence the criticisms raised in the press against the use of chemotherapy in aquaculture, and the restrictive legislation set up in many countries under pressure of public opinion. It sometimes appears that people would believe that drug resistance of bacteria responsible for human infections originates exclusively, or almost exclusively, from consumption of animal products such as those provided by aquaculture.

    It should be noted that in addition to the chemicals that are deliberately used, fish raised in aquaculture are also susceptible to contamination via pesticides present in feed, agriculture run-off water, and sediments. The magnitude of human exposure to these sources has not yet been fully assessed and should be examined periodically in light of the growth and change in this sector of the seafood industry.
  • Book | Conference publication

    Proceedings of the National Seaweed Planning Workshop held on August 2-3, 2001, SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department, Tigbauan, Iloilo. 

    AQ Hurtado, NG Guanzon Jr., TR de Castro-Mallare & MRJ Luhan (Eds.) - 2002 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    Seaweed forming is one of the major livelihoods among coastal communities in the Philippines, particularly to some 180,000 families in the Sulu Archipelago. In 1999, the Philippines exported more than 35,000 tons of dried seaweeds (US$ 44M) making the country the 4th largest producer of seaweeds and 8th largest producer of carrageenan in the world. However, improper post-harvest management (i.e. cleaning; drying by salting or steaming; adulteration of seaweeds with sand, dust, and dirt for added weight; storage; and baling) reduces quality, which eventually dictates the market price. The National Seaweed Planning Workshop was organized by a collaborative effort of SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department (AQD) and the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) for the formulation of a Code of Practice for the Seaweed Industry in order to minimize industry malpractices and to sustain its position in the international market. The National Seaweed Planning Workshop invited several seaweed industry associations, and representatives from the government, NGOs and academic and research organizations conducting seaweed research and development to discuss the research and development programs of the different participating agencies, identify and validate problems and concerns of the seaweed industry, and agree on strategies of solving problems in seaweed farming like disease management, post-harvest facilities and research funding. This proceedings documents the National Seaweed Planning Workshop. Hopefully, the contributions would help in the drafting of the Code of Practice in attaining a sustainable seaweed industry.
  • Book chapter

    Introduction to nutrition in tropical aquaculture 

    OM Millamena - In OM Millamena, RM Coloso & FP Pascual (Eds.), Nutrition in Tropical Aquaculture: Essentials of fish nutrition, feeds, and feeding of tropical aquatic species, 2002 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    Fish is a vital component of food security especially in developing countries of the world. As the world population grows, the need for more food and more fish has correspondingly increased. Aquaculture, the farming and husbandry of fish and other aquatic organisms, is now a well-established industry worldwide and is the fastest growing food production sector. However, as aquaculture operations expand, the risk to the environment grows.

    Fish nutrition and feeding play important roles in the sustainable development of aquaculture. The efficient conversion of feed to fish is important to fish farmers because feed is the largest component of the total cost of production. Improved feed composition and better feed efficiency will result in higher fish production, lower feed cost, and low waste production hence, decreased nutrient load from fish farming.
  • Book

    An assessment of the coastal resources of Ibajay and Tangalan, Aklan: Implications for management 

    LMB Garcia (Ed.) - 2001 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    This report describes the present state of marine resources in several coastal barangays of Ibajay and Tangalan, Aklan (Philippines). Field data were obtained from rapid surveys conducted from July to September 1998. Recommendations based on analyses of the data will guide fisherfolk and other stakeholders, particularly the local government units, in their development plans for these neighboring municipalities. Both land and marine products in the area are mainly harvested for the local market. All coastal barangays are dependent on fishing for their livelihood. The medium-scale municipal fishery of Tangalan employs several passive (encircling gill net, bag net, fish corral) and active gears (baby purse seine) compared with the traditional fishing methods employed by Ibajay fishers. Pond aquaculture in mangrove areas is well-developed in Ibajay West (barangays Aquino and Ondoy) and in Tangalan. However, ownership of these ponds is limited to a few individuals and families, unlike in Barangay Bugtong Bato where informal ownership distributed among families has been the traditional rule. Nonetheless, the introduction of so-called environment-friendly methods of utilizing mangroves (e.g., aquasilviculture) and other shared coastal resources may seriously undermine the informal rights-based social structures in the barangays. Without proper rules and enforcement, the application of these methods may be misused, aggravating the already poor overall state of their coastal resources. Major problems affecting their fishing livelihood include siltation of nearshore waters due to illegal deforestation upland, encroachment of municipal fishing grounds by commercial and other fishers elsewhere, and the lack of capital to finance the fishery. Weak inter-organizational links among government and non-government organizations have hampered the implementation of solutions to these common problems in coastal barangays. For instance, a conflict between fishers from these neighboring municipalities over territorial boundaries of common fishing grounds in Pangayawan and Pungtod reefs has not been resolved over the years. Likewise, the introduction of aquasilviculture in mangrove areas may become a potent source of conflict among resource-users who maintain informal rights over the mangrove resource. The overall state of coastal resources in these municipalities is in immediate need of a unified plan to promote both their preservation and conservation. To achieve this end, a joint resource management council representing all resource-users from both municipalities must be organized and convened. To address the presently weak inter-organizational links among existing organizations, this joint council may provide a legitimate forum to identify, resolve, integrate, implement, and enforce guidelines on the common use of resources, both marine and inland. Low estimated yields from the reef fishery, conversion of mangroves for aquaculture beyond the allowable limit, a persistent conflict over fishing rights in several reefs offshore, the limited resources for seaweed and fish mariculture, and threats on existing traditional social structures by progressive resource-users are several issues that require thorough discussions to formulate popularly approved and acceptable management strategies. These strategies include community-based approaches of co-managing resources such as "no-take zones" (sanctuaries), ecotourism development, and livelihood schemes to mitigate, in part, the pressure of over-exploitation of fishery resources.

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