A 221-page book has eight chapters on aquaculture nutrition, feed formulation and feeding management. This book is the product of more than 25 years of research experience in fish nutrition and feed development at SEAFDEC/AQD.

  • Contents

    • Foreword
    • About the authors and editors
    • Preface
    • Chapter 1
      INTRODUCTION TO NUTRITION IN TROPICAL AQUACULTURE
      Oseni M. Millamena
      • Feeds in aquaculture
      • Feeds and the environment
      • Sustainable approaches to aquaculture
      • Summary
      • Suggested readings
    • Chapter 2
      THE ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS
      Oseni M. Millamena
      • Proteins and amino acids
        • Introduction
        • Amino acids
        • Classification of amino acids
          • Essential amino acids
          • Non-essential amino acids
        • Classification of proteins
        • Protein structure
        • Fate of absorbed amino acids
        • Importance of amino acid profiles in fish nutrition
        • Qualitative amino acid requirements
        • Quantitative amino acid requirements
        • Deficiencies and excesses of dietary amino acids
        • Evaluation of protein quality
        • Protein requirement
        • Guide questions
      • Lipids and fatty acids
        • Introduction
        • Types of lipids
        • General function of lipids
        • Fatty acids
          • Structure and classification
          • Nomenclature
        • Fatty acid composition of fish
        • Biosynthesis of fatty acids
        • Oxidation of fatty acids
        • Lipid peroxidation
        • Importance of fatty acid profiles in fish nutrition
        • Essential Fatty Acid Requirements of Fish
        • Guide questions
      • Carbohydrates
        • Introduction
        • Classification of carbohydrates
          • Monosaccharides
          • Disaccharides and oligosaccharides
          • Polysaccharides
        • Utilization of carbohydrates
        • Guide questions
      • Energy
        • Introduction
        • Utilization of energy
        • Energy metabolism
        • Energy balance and dietary requirement
        • Dietary energy requirement
        • Guide questions
      • Vitamins
        • Introduction
        • Classification of vitamins
          • Water-soluble vitamins
          • Lipid-soluble vitamins
        • Vitamin requirements of fish
        • Guide questions
      • Minerals
        • Introduction
        • Classification of minerals
        • General functions of minerals
        • Mineral availability
        • Macrominerals
        • Microminerals
        • Mineral supplementation of practical fish diets
        • Mineral requirements of fish
        • Guide questions
        • Summary
        • Suggested readings
    • Chapter 3
      FEEDING HABITS AND DIGESTIVE PHYSIOLOGY OF FISHES
      Ilda G. Borlongan, Relicardo M. Coloso and Nelson V. Golez
      • Introduction
      • Feeding habits and behavior
      • Anatomy and physiology of the digestive system
        • Fishes
        • Crustaceans
      • Digestion and absorption
        • Digestion and absorption of proteins
        • Digestion and absorption of carbohydrates
        • Digestion and absorption of lipids
      • Measurements and analysis used in digestion studies
        • Measurements of stomach contents
        • Measurement of digestibility
      • Factors affecting digestion and absorption
      • Feeding process in fish
        • Appetite and satiation
        • Arousal and search
        • Location and identification
        • Capture
        • Taste testing
        • Swallowing or rejection
      • Summary
      • Guide questions
      • Suggested readings
    • Chapter 4
      FORMULATION OF AQUAFEEDS
      Mae R. Catacutan
      • Introduction
      • Feed ingredients for aquaculture
      • Feed formulation
        • Pearson’s square and algebraic equation methods
        • Trial and error method
        • Linear program for least cost formulation
      • Purified diet formulation
      • Summary
      • Guide questions
      • Suggested readings
    • Chapter 5
      PROCESSING OF FEEDSTUFFS AND AQUAFEEDS
      Nelson V. Golez
      • Introduction
      • Feedstuff processing
      • Different methods of feedstuff processing
        • Soaking
        • Heating and cooking
        • Dehulling
        • Extraction with organic solvent and chemical treatment
      • Feed preparation techniques
        • Grinding
        • Size grading or sieving
        • Weighing
        • Mixing
        • Conditioning
        • Pelleting and extrusion
        • Pellet cooling and drying
        • Pellet crumbler
        • Pellet and crumbled feed cleaner
        • Product packaging and storage
      • Steps in large-scale feed preparation
      • Steps in small-scale feed preparation
      • Steps in larval feed preparation
      • Quality control
      • Feed mill sanitation and maintenance
      • Summary
      • Guide questions
      • Suggested readings
    • Chapter 6
      EVALUATION OF FEEDSTUFFS AND AQUAFEEDS
      Myrna B. Teruel
      • Introduction
      • Physical evaluation
        • Use of the senses
        • Feed microscopy
        • Measurements of feedstuffs bulk density
        • Attractability
        • Water stability
      • Chemical evaluation
        • Proximate analysis
        • Methods of protein evaluation
        • Methods of lipid evaluation
        • Method of vitamin evaluation
        • Methods of mineral evaluation
        • Methods of energy determination
        • Analysis of toxins in feeds
      • Microbiological evaluation
      • Biological evaluation
        • Parameters to be monitored in a feeding experiment
      • Summary
      • Guide questions
      • Suggested readings
    • Chapter 7
      MANAGEMENT OF FEEDING AQUACULTURE SPECIES
      Veronica R. Alava
      • Introduction
      • Feeding strategies in pond culture
        • Production of natural aquatic food
        • Feeding a supplementary diet
        • Feeding a complete diet
      • Feeding management
        • Sampling and record keeping
        • Feeding ration
        • Feed particle size
        • Feed application methods
      • Feeding, water quality, and the environment
        • Feeding, oxygen requirements, and water quality
        • Fish farm wastes
      • Performance measures
        • Biomass
        • Feed conversion ratio
      • Feeding schemes
        • Milkfish
        • Tilapias
        • Rabbitfish
        • Bighead carp
        • Native catfish
        • Asian sea bass
        • Orange-spotted grouper
        • Mangrove red snapper
        • Tiger shrimp
        • Mud crabs
      • Other species for Stock enhancement
        • Donkey’s ear abalone
        • Seahorses
        • Window pane oyster
      • Summary
      • Guide questions
      • Suggested readings
    • Chapter 8
      ECONOMICS OF FEEDING
      Renato F. Agbayani
      • Introduction
      • Cost of producing feeds
        • Single input and single output production function
        • The production function and the cost of production
      • Economic efficiency of feeds
        • Least-cost combination of feeds
        • Minimum cost of feed formulation using linear programming
      • Summary
      • Guide questions
      • Suggested readings
    • APPENDIX
      • Sample worksheet for calculating the nutrient composition of feed
      • Methods of protein analysis (Kjeldahl Method)
      • Crude fat analysis (Soxhtec Method)
      • Lipid extraction (Bligh and Dyer Method)
      • Saponification and transesterification
      • Method of peroxide value determination
      • Procedure of fatty acid value determination
      • Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value determination
    • GLOSSARY
    • ILLUSTRATION AND PHOTO CREDITS
    • INDEX

Recent Submissions

  • Book

    Nutrition in tropical aquaculture : essentials of fish nutrition, feeds, and feeding of tropical aquatic species 

    OM Millamena, RM Coloso & FP Pascual (Eds.) - 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    This book is intended to teach undergraduate students the essentials of aquaculture nutrition, feed formulation, and feeding management. It serves as a reference book for researchers in aquaculture, aquaculturists, fish farmers, and aquaculture nutritionists. For the basic understanding of the materials presented, it is essential that the students, teachers, and researchers have a good background in chemistry, fish biology, or fisheries. The book covers the subject areas of known nutrient requirements, effects of nutrient deficiencies on various aquatic species, nutrient sources, digestibility, and digestive physiology. Feed formulation, processing and storage, evaluation and quality control, feeding management, as well as the economics of feeding are included. Aspects on feeds and feeding related to the conservation of the aquatic environment are also dealt with.

    Each chapter of this book has common features such as an introduction, basic concepts, and a summary. Both the basic and practical aspects of fish nutrition are included to give the students and allow the readers who are unfamiliar with the topics a clear understanding and knowledge of these concepts. Study questions at the end of each chapter serve as a guide to summarize and impress on the students the salient points of the subject matter in each chapter. To easily comprehend the subject matter, there is an appendix containing the analytical methods and a glossary of technical terms. The users particularly the students are encouraged to broaden their knowledge by referring to the list of references and suggested readings at the end of each chapter.
  • Book chapter

    Feeding habits and digestive physiology of fishes 

    IG Borlongan, RM Coloso & NV Golez - In OM Millamena, RM Coloso & FP Pascual (Eds.), Nutrition in Tropical Aquaculture: Essentials of fish nutrition, feeds, and feeding of tropical aquatic species, 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    This chapter provides basic information on the feeding habits and behavior, and physiology of fishes and crustaceans. The mechanisms that control the movement and digestion of food, methods of assessing digestibility of feed, factors affecting digestion and absorption of food nutrients, and feeding processes in fish are discussed. An understanding of the feeding habits, feeding mechanisms, and the digestion and absorption processes can help fish farmers and nutritionists maximize the use of feed. The rate at which fish digest their food is of primary importance in determining feeding rates, frequency, and ration size. Knowledge of the digestive physiology of fish is also necessary for an effective feed formulation and in choosing a proper feeding regime.

    This chapter aims to teach the reader: the feeding habits and behavior of fishes and crustaceans; the structural adaptation in the anatomy of the digestive tract; the various organs of the digestive systems of fishes and crustaceans and their functions; nutrient digestion and absorption by fishes and the fate of digested and undigested food; the factors that affect the rate of digestion and absorption; and the feeding process in fish.
  • Book chapter

    The essential nutrients: Vitamins 

    OM Millamena - In OM Millamena, RM Coloso & FP Pascual (Eds.), Nutrition in Tropical Aquaculture: Essentials of fish nutrition, feeds, and feeding of tropical aquatic species, 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    This section describes the various lipid-soluble and water-soluble vitamins, their differences, physiological functions, and the symptoms of vitamin deficiencies in fish. It also shows a summary of nutritional deficiency signs and the requirements of various fish species for vitamins.
  • Book chapter

    The essential nutrients: Energy 

    OM Millamena - In OM Millamena, RM Coloso & FP Pascual (Eds.), Nutrition in Tropical Aquaculture: Essentials of fish nutrition, feeds, and feeding of tropical aquatic species, 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    After studying this section, the reader should be able to differentiate the forms of energy and their measurement. Understand dietary energy metabolism, the energy balance equation and factors that influence dietary energy requirement of fish; and understand the significance of optimal protein to non-protein energy in fish diets.
  • Book chapter

    Management of feeding aquaculture species 

    VR Alava - In OM Millamena, RM Coloso & FP Pascual (Eds.), Nutrition in Tropical Aquaculture: Essentials of fish nutrition, feeds, and feeding of tropical aquatic species, 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    This chapter teaches the reader to: differentiate the different feeding strategies in pond culture; learn feeding management methods such as stock sampling and record keeping, calculating daily feed ration, choosing appropriate feed size, and methods of applying feeds; understand the impact of feeding management on water quality and environment and on the cultured animal’s growth, survival, and feed conversion ratio; and describe the different feeding schemes used to culture fishes (milkfish, tilapia, rabbitfish, bighead carp, native catfish, sea bass, orange-spotted grouper, and mangrove red snapper; and crustaceans (tiger shrimp and mud crab). Other species for aquaculture stock enhancement (donkey’s ear abalone, seahorses, window-pane oyster) are also discussed.
  • Book chapter

    Formulation of aquafeeds 

    MR Catacutan - In OM Millamena, RM Coloso & FP Pascual (Eds.), Nutrition in Tropical Aquaculture: Essentials of fish nutrition, feeds, and feeding of tropical aquatic species, 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The development of a feed that is both effective and economical for an aquaculture species in all its life stages is a continuous effort. Aquafeed development started when natural food sources in culture systems became inadequate and had to be supplemented with prepared feed. As fish stocking densities in culture increase, supplemental feeding is no longer sufficient. A complete feed that contains all the necessary nutrients in sufficient amounts to bring about good growth, survival, and reproduction is needed. Feed ingredients generally come from animal or plant sources and some are by-products of the food industry. There is no single feed ingredient or feedstuff that contains all the nutrients in adequate amounts. Thus, different feed ingredients are combined to make a feed that has the desired composition and nutrient levels. In combining various feed ingredients, it is important to know how much of each feed ingredient should be used to produce a cost-effective aquafeed.

    With the growth and expansion of aquaculture into a major industry, several fish species are being cultured; thus, the development of more efficient aquafeed formulations should continue. In developing cost-effective formulated diets, many important factors have to be considered. This chapter discusses these factors and the mathematical calculations in formulating a feed. It aims to enable students to formulate diets using purified and practical feed ingredients, and also to formulate effective supplemental and complete diets for aquaculture species.
  • Book chapter

    Evaluation of feedstuffs and aquafeeds 

    MB Teruel - In OM Millamena, RM Coloso & FP Pascual (Eds.), Nutrition in Tropical Aquaculture: Essentials of fish nutrition, feeds, and feeding of tropical aquatic species, 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    This chapter discusses how to evaluate feedstuffs and feeds. The results of feed evaluation will be used to ensure the production of high quality feeds for fish, crustaceans, and shellfish.
  • Book chapter

    Processing of feedstuffs and aquafeeds 

    NV Golez - In OM Millamena, RM Coloso & FP Pascual (Eds.), Nutrition in Tropical Aquaculture: Essentials of fish nutrition, feeds, and feeding of tropical aquatic species, 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    This chapter will help the reader understand and appreciate the basic principles of processing, preparation, storage, and quality control in the preparation of aquafeeds. The material in this section is presented in sequence beginning with the processing of basic ingredients to remove antinutritional factors, followed by steps in feed preparation, from the easiest to the more complex processes, and storage. This chapter presents methods and equipment that are useful not only for feed millers, but also for extension workers and fish farmers.
  • Book chapter

    The essential nutrients: Proteins and amino acids 

    OM Millamena - In OM Millamena, RM Coloso & FP Pascual (Eds.), Nutrition in Tropical Aquaculture: Essentials of fish nutrition, feeds, and feeding of tropical aquatic species, 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    This section aims to teach the reader the ten essential amino acids required by fish and their chemical structures, distinguish between essential and non-essential amino acids; the fate of absorbed amino acids in fish; effects of deficiencies and excesses of dietary amino acids in fish diets; the procedure on how to determine the qualitative and quantitative amino acid requirements of fish; methods of evaluating protein quality; and how to determine protein requirements of some aquaculture species.
  • Book chapter

    Economics of feeding 

    RF Agbayani - In OM Millamena, RM Coloso & FP Pascual (Eds.), Nutrition in Tropical Aquaculture: Essentials of fish nutrition, feeds, and feeding of tropical aquatic species, 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    This chapter aims to introduce concepts and methods in doing economic analysis applicable in aquaculture in general with emphasis in feed production and feeding in aquaculture farms. This chapter discusses the following topics: cost of producing feeds; simple single-input (feeds) and single output (fish) production function; indices for measuring economic efficiency of feeds; the least-cost combination; and linear programming as used in the allocation of limited resources such as feed ingredients that will meet the nutritional requirements of the fish.
  • Book chapter

    The essential nutrients: Minerals 

    OM Millamena - In OM Millamena, RM Coloso & FP Pascual (Eds.), Nutrition in Tropical Aquaculture: Essentials of fish nutrition, feeds, and feeding of tropical aquatic species, 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    This section discusses the macro, micro, and trace minerals; their physiologic functions; and deficiency signs and symptoms. It also gives a summary of the mineral functions and mineral requirements of fishes and shrimp.
  • Book chapter

    The essential nutrients: Lipids and fatty acids 

    OM Millamena - In OM Millamena, RM Coloso & FP Pascual (Eds.), Nutrition in Tropical Aquaculture: Essentials of fish nutrition, feeds, and feeding of tropical aquatic species, 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The objective of this section is to acquaint the reader about common fatty acids, their nomenclature and formulas, and differentiate between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids; to know how environmental factors (temperature, salinity, diet) influence the fatty acid composition of fish; the mechanisms of fatty acid biosynthesis and oxidation, and factors that favor fatty acid biosynthesis and oxidation; the effects of lipid peroxidation and the function of antioxidants; and to understand the importance of fatty acid profiles in fish nutrition, and differences in the essential fatty acid requirements of warmwater and coldwater fishes.
  • Book chapter

    The essential nutrients: Carbohydrates 

    OM Millamena - In OM Millamena, RM Coloso & FP Pascual (Eds.), Nutrition in Tropical Aquaculture: Essentials of fish nutrition, feeds, and feeding of tropical aquatic species, 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    This section discusses the difference among the various forms of carbohydrate and their significance in fish nutrition; distinguish between utilization of carbohydrates by warmwater and coldwater fishes and know how dietary carbohydrates are made available to fish.
  • Book chapter

    Introduction to nutrition in tropical aquaculture 

    OM Millamena - In OM Millamena, RM Coloso & FP Pascual (Eds.), Nutrition in Tropical Aquaculture: Essentials of fish nutrition, feeds, and feeding of tropical aquatic species, 2002 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    Fish is a vital component of food security especially in developing countries of the world. As the world population grows, the need for more food and more fish has correspondingly increased. Aquaculture, the farming and husbandry of fish and other aquatic organisms, is now a well-established industry worldwide and is the fastest growing food production sector. However, as aquaculture operations expand, the risk to the environment grows.

    Fish nutrition and feeding play important roles in the sustainable development of aquaculture. The efficient conversion of feed to fish is important to fish farmers because feed is the largest component of the total cost of production. Improved feed composition and better feed efficiency will result in higher fish production, lower feed cost, and low waste production hence, decreased nutrient load from fish farming.