Mineral requirements of Penaeids
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Marine shrimps absorb minerals from their aquatic environment aside from the minerals that come from the food they eat. Thus, the dietary requirement of shrimps for certain minerals will depend on the amounts and availability of these minerals in the aquatic environment. Dietary sources for growth may be necessary due to losses during moltings. Most of the dietary studies for mineral requirements have been done under laboratory conditions with purified or semi-purified diets and hardly any information is available under practical culture conditions. Most published data for mineral requirements are for juvenile Penaeus japonicus. There are few data for P. monodon, P. californiensis, P. merguiensis, P. aztecus. Calcium and phosphorus are the minerals that have been studied the most. These two have been found to be related to problems of soft-shelling in P. monodon. Apparently calcium and phosphorus requirements are within the range of 1 to 2%. The ratio of calcium to phosphorus in the diet is also an important factor in the efficient utilization of both minerals. It seems that a 1 :1 ratio provides for good growth. Phosphorus deficiency results in reduced growth while lack of magnesium brings about decreased growth, poor survival and reduced feed efficiency in P. japonicus. Iron toxicity has also been observed in P. japonicus. It might not be necessary to include some minerals in the diet of penaeids.
Piedad-Pascual, F. (1990). Mineral requirements of Penaeids. In Advances in Tropical Aquaculture: Workshop at Tahiti, French Polynesia, February 20 - March 4, 1989 (pp. 309–313). Tahiti: Institut Francais de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la Mer.
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