Prawn/shrimp culture industry in the Philippines
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The Philippines is an archipelago of more than 7,100 islands with 17,460 km of coastline, including mangrove forests which covered about 450,000 ha in the 1920s. Coastal aquaculture began a few centuries ago when earthen ponds for the culture of milkfish (Chanos chanos) were first converted from mangrove swamps. For a long time, coastal aquaculture was synonymous with milkfish pond culture; while prawns and shrimps were incidental byproducts resulting from wild fry that entered the ponds during tidal water exchange. In 1943, studies on low density monoculture of the giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) using wild fry were initiated at the Dagat-dagatan Experimental Station of the Bureau of Fisheries in Malabon, Rizal Province. Information on the ecology and early life history of P. monodon generated by the Institute of Fisheries Research Development of the Mindanao State University (MSU-IFRD) in the early 1970s was used in setting up the first experimental prawn hatchery at IFRD. This was followed by the establishment of big-tank and small-tank hatcheries at the Aquaculture Department of the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC/AQD) in Iloilo Province. An active technology transfer program that included short-term, hands-on training courses on small-scale hatchery starting in 1977, contributed to a dramatic hatchery production of 15 million prawn PL in 1978. Based on the earlier Dagat-dagatan studies, SEAFDEC/AQD started higher-density (semi-intensive) growout pond experiments with P. monodon in the mid-1970's. At that time, farmers started stocking more than 10,000 PL/ha using hatchery fry. Soon after, the first intensive culture trials, using imported Taiwanese technology and feed formulations were undertaken by a Philippine food conglomerate. The availability of both seed and feed, and the attraction of lucrative export market prices contributed to the take-off of the prawn industry. In 1983, when the country's 56 hatcheries produced 85 million PL's, and commercial pellets for intensive culture first appeared in the market, pond production totalled 12,100 MT, a quantum leap from a harvest of only 1,800 MT the previous year. Since then production of PL, adults and exports have steadily increased to a peak of 20,000 MT of exports from 40,000 MT of pond harvests in 1988. The following year the bubble burst. From a high of P200/kg (US$1 =P21) in 1988, farm gate prices plummeted to as low as P70/kg in mid-1989 due to Southeast Asian excess production of black tiger prawn, and to prawn exports from China glutting the Japanese market. This chapter discusses the various components of the Philippine prawn industry with a focus on growout, problems of the farming sector, and problems of the industry as a whole. Lastly, recommendations are offerred for long-term viability.
Bacterial diseases of penaeid shrimps: an Asian view.
Primavera, J. H. (1992). Prawn/shrimp culture industry in the Philippines. In A. W. Fast & L. J. Lester (Eds.), Marine Shrimp Culture: Principles and Practices (Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science Vol. 23, pp. 701-728). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
SeriesDevelopments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science; 23
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Traditional devices and gear for collecting fry of "sugpo" giant tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon in the Philippines H Motoh - 1980 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
Series: Technical report / SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department; No. 4Eight typical devices and gears for catching the wild fry of the giant tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon, locally called sugpo are described and illustrated. There are three stationary ones vis. fry lure, fry filter net and set fry trap, and five mobile ones viz. scoop net, fry scare line, fry seine, triangular net, and fry bulldozer. These have been used traditionally in the Philippines. This design and manner of operation are adapted to the behaviors and habits of the sugpo fry such as clinging and incursion with the incoming tidal current in mangrove creeks or at the mouth of the brackish river.
Technical ReportH Motoh - 1980 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
Series: Technical report / SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department; 5This paper describes various types of shrimping and prawning gear and devices, most of which have been traditionally used in the Philippines, with some ecological notes. This study provides basic information on prawn culture and fry collection, which will be useful for private fishpond operators and workers.
BookSY Sim, MA Rimmer, JD Toledo, K Sugama, I Rumengan, K Williams & MJ Phillips - 2005 - Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific
Series: Asia-Pacific Marine Finfish Aquaculture Network; Publication No. 2005–01Recent improvements in hatchery production technology for high-value marine finfish species such as groupers have led to an increased interest in setting up hatcheries to produce fingerlings for aquaculture. Small-scale hatcheries make this technology available to poor people in developing countries. Capital costs for small-scale hatcheries are relatively low, and the profitability of these ventures ensures rapid payback of capital investment. This guide provides an outline of the requirements to establish a small-scale marine finfish hatchery, particularly the economic aspects. It is intended to provide sufficient information for potential investors to decide whether investment in such ventures is appropriate for them. The guide provides some basic technical information in order to give an indication of the level of technical expertise necessary to operate a small-scale marine finfish hatchery. However, it is not intended as a detailed technical guide to the operation of small-scale hatcheries. Additional resources, such as training courses in marine finfish hatchery production, are available and these are listed in this document. Development of small-scale hatcheries may be more appropriate where there are existing marine hatchery operations, e.g. for shrimp or milkfish. By definition, small-scale hatcheries do not have broodstock facilities, so a supply of fertilised eggs (usually from a larger hatchery) is essential. Access to fertilised eggs and experienced hatchery staff will limit the application of small-scale hatchery technology. Despite this, there is considerable potential for this technology to be widely adopted. This guide has been written by a team of experts in marine finfish aquaculture who have been involved in a multinational collaborative research project since 1999.