Mangrove conversion and brackishwater pond culture in the Philippines
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Around 50% of mangrove loss in the Philippines can be traced to brackishwater pond construction. The decrease in mangroves from 450 000 ha in 1920 to 132 500 ha in 1990 has been accompanied by expansion of culture ponds to 223 000 ha in 1990. The history of fishpond development in the country includes a government-sponsored fishpond boom in the 1950-g and 1960s, the proconservation decade of the 1970s followed by a shrimp fever in the 1980s. Production from brackishwater ponds has increased from 15 900 mt worth P7.6 million in 1938 to 267 000 mt valued at P6.5 billion in 1990. On the other hand, the maximum valuation of over $11000 ha−1 yr−1 for unmanaged and managed mangrove forests makes them economically on par with the most profitable pond farming systems. The loss of mangrove systems and their varied goods and services is the single most important consequence of brackishwater pond culture in the Philippines. Moreover, intensive shrimp farming is associated with other ecological and socioeconomic effects such as pollution of coastal waters and decline in domestic food crops. New legislation and enforcement of existing laws, conservation of remaining mangroves, massive rehabilitation of denuded mangrove areas, and promotion of sustainable aquaculture and fisheries are recommended.
Primavera, J. H. (1992). Mangrove conversion and brackishwater pond culture in the Philippines. In J. Davies & G. Claridge (Eds.), Protection and Sustainable Use of Wetland Resources in the Philippines. Proceedings of a Workshop, 30 September to 2 October 1992, Institute of Forest Conservation, University of the Philippines at Los Baños, Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines (pp. 77-90). Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Asian Wetland Bureau; Manila, Philippines: Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau.
PublisherAsian Wetland Bureau; Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau
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ArticleJH Primavera -
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 1998 - ElsevierA total of 4845 penaeids belonging to nine species—Metapenaeus anchistus, M. ensis, M. moyebi, M. philippinensis, Penaeus merguiensis, P. monodon, P. semisulcatus, P. latisulcatus and Metapenaeopsis palmensis—were collected by pocket seine monthly over 13 months from mangrove and non-mangrove sites in Guimaras, Philippines. The restricted distribution of the three dominant species—M. ensisandP. merguiensisto the brackish water riverine mangrove, andM. anchistusto the high-salinity island mangrove and tidal flat—is probably related to different salinity and substrate preferences. Abundance and size composition of the major species suggest a strong nursery role for the riverine mangrove (high juvenile densities, relatively small sizes year-round), limited nursery use of the island mangrove (fewer shrimps, larger size ranges, presence of maturing females) and a non-nursery use (e.g. foraging) in the tidal flat. Penaeid recruitment to the river had two peaks in November and May when the average salinity was ∼20 (Practical Salinity Scale) and water temperatures were high (30–31 °C). The spatio-temporal pattern of penaeid species in Guimaras shows partitioning across habitats and seasonal recruitment influenced by physical and biological factors.
Property rights and collective action in the management of mangrove ecosystems: implications of the adoption of mangrove friendly-aquaculture RF Agbayani - In JH Primavera, LMB Garcia, MT Castaños & MB Surtida (Eds.), Mangrove-Friendly Aquaculture : Proceedings of the Workshop on Mangrove-Friendly Aquaculture organized by the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department, January 11-15, 1999, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2000 - Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Aquaculture DepartmentThe SEAFDEC/AQD experience in Malalison Island on the Community Fishery Resources Management Project is well used in the Aklan project on community-based mangrove-friendly aquaculture. The territorial use rights in fisheries that was implemented in Malalison has become a model in investigating property rights regime in state-owned mangrove areas in Ibajay, Aklan. The concept of property rights as a management strategy in arresting the further destruction of mangroves and rehabilitating destroyed mangrove forest requires the collective effort of different users and stakeholders. There is a need to balance environmental conservation and food security in the management of mangrove resources.
Book | Conference publication
Mangrove-Friendly Aquaculture : Proceedings of the Workshop on Mangrove-Friendly Aquaculture organized by the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department, January 11-15, 1999, Iloilo City, Philippines JH Primavera, LMB Garcia, MT Castaños & MB Surtida (Eds.) - 2000 - Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Aquaculture DepartmentThe proceedings have three review papers on the mangroves of Southeast Asia, silvofisheries, and Indonesia's integrated mangrove forest and aquaculture systems. The rest of the papers, all on mangrove-friendly aquaculture efforts are from the Philippines, Japan, Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia, Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, and Cambodia. All the countries represented had varied methodologies, with Cambodia in its initial stages while some countries like Indonesia and Thailand have tested methodologies. The proceedings include a tabulation of the reported mangrove-friendly technology by country -- e.g. silvofisheries in ponds (mangrove and fish/shrimp/mudcrab) and pens (mangrove and mudcrab). The workshop recommendations are classified into three major topics: problems associated with mangroves, problems associated with aquaculture practices, and socioeconomic and cultural issues.