Analysis of biosecurity-related policies governing the seaweed industry of the Philippines
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The seaweed industry in the Philippines is a significant contributor to aquaculture production, both nationally and internationally. It out-produces the capture fisheries sector and most global producers, with the exception of China and Indonesia. Seaweed species, particularly Kappaphycus and Eucheuma spp., have been farmed throughout the country since the early 1970s. In 2017, the Philippines produced 1.4 million tonnes (fwt) and exported 35,490 tonnes of seaweed and carrageenan with a value of US$174 million. However, a decreasing trend in seaweed production has been observed since the mid-2000s as a result of pest and disease outbreaks, among other factors, which have been exacerbated by climate change. This paper is the first to analyze biosecurity-related national policies and legislation (a.k.a. ‘frameworks’ collectively), which are relevant to the seaweed industry in the Philippines. A total of 12 frameworks were identified, of which a sub-set of seven were compared using defined biosecurity themes, risks, and management measures to evaluate how seaweed biosecurity is incorporated into national policy. The inclusion of biosecurity-related activities in national frameworks was found to be limited to aquatic animal commodities or agricultural crops. Only the Code of Good Aquaculture Practices (GAqP) for seaweed specifically included seaweed cultivation, however, it did not include any biosecurity measures. The results indicated a clear gap in current biosecurity legislation and policy in the Philippines, which if addressed have the potential to reduce the impact of endemic and emergent diseases and pests and support the sustainable growth of this important industry.
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Conference paperK Lewmanomont - In IJ Dogma Jr., GC Trono Jr. & RA Tabbada (Eds.), Culture and use of algae in Southeast Asia. Proceedings of the Symposium on Culture and Utilization of Algae in Southeast Asia, 8-11 December 1981, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1990 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterDifferent seaweeds harvested from natural stocks are utilized in Thailand as human food and animal feed and for medicinal purpose and extraction of crude agar. Gracilaria and Porphyra are the most exploited commercially. Commercial cultivation through seaweed farming is recommended.
BookAQ Hurtado & RF Agbayani - 2000 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 32A 24-page manual that introduces the carrageenan-producing seaweed Kappaphycus whose culture has spread from Jolo in Mindanao to at least 14 sites in the Visayas and Luzon. Four culture methods are presented: fixed off-bottom, raft long-line (single or multiple), hanging long line, and polyculture of seaweeds with carnivorous fishes.