Review of SEAFDEC/AQD fish nutrition and feed development research.
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Research on fish nutrition and feed development at SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department has focused on three major areas: nutrient requirements and their interrelationships, digestive enzymes and digestibility, and practical feed development for important species such as milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskal), sea bass (Lates calcarifer), Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), and tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). Early studies on the nutrient requirements were mainly on protein, lipid and carbohydrate. Studies on essential amino acids and fatty acids, and optimum proteln:energy ratio in the diets for cultured species were conducted later. Likewise, requirements for other essential nutrients in shrimps, like phospholipid and cholesterol, were studied. Dietary calcium and phosphorus required to prevent soft-shelled shrimps were determined. Requirements for water-soluble vitamins and bioavailability of stable forms of vitamin C were evaluated. Little is known of the vitamin and mineral requirements.The major digestive enzymes in milkfish have been studied. The apparent digestibility of common feedstuffs were determined in vivo and in vitro for milkfish and tiger shrimp, and presently, for sea bass. Development of cost-effective practical feed continues to be a major research undertaking at SEAFDEC/AQD. Diet refinement emphasizes on use of inexpensive and indigenous materials in diet formulations. The feasibility of using legumes, leaf meals, and agricultural by-products and wastes as feed components has been demonstrated. Feed and feedstuff quality control and proper processing techniques were found to improve the nutritional value of low-grade raw materials. Improved feeding techniques and practices have been pursued to minimize feeding costs. Studies on the effect of feeds on the environment are being initiated. Economically feasible grow-out diets for semi-intensive culture of milkfish, Nile tilapia, and tiger shrimp, and diets for broodstock and larvae of these species have been developed.
Millamena, O.M. (1996). Review of SEAFDEC/AQD fish nutrition and feed development research. In: C.B. Santiago, R.M. Coloso, O.M. Millamena & I.G. Borlongan (Eds.). Feeds for Small-Scale Aaquaculture. Proceedings of the National Seminar-Workshop on Fish Nutrition and Feeds (pp. 52-63). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines : SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department.
- Conference Proceedings 
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Book chapterVR Alava - In OM Millamena, RM Coloso & FP Pascual (Eds.), Nutrition in Tropical Aquaculture: Essentials of fish nutrition, feeds, and feeding of tropical aquatic species, 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThis chapter teaches the reader to: differentiate the different feeding strategies in pond culture; learn feeding management methods such as stock sampling and record keeping, calculating daily feed ration, choosing appropriate feed size, and methods of applying feeds; understand the impact of feeding management on water quality and environment and on the cultured animal’s growth, survival, and feed conversion ratio; and describe the different feeding schemes used to culture fishes (milkfish, tilapia, rabbitfish, bighead carp, native catfish, sea bass, orange-spotted grouper, and mangrove red snapper; and crustaceans (tiger shrimp and mud crab). Other species for aquaculture stock enhancement (donkey’s ear abalone, seahorses, window-pane oyster) are also discussed.
Book chapterNV Golez - In OM Millamena, RM Coloso & FP Pascual (Eds.), Nutrition in Tropical Aquaculture: Essentials of fish nutrition, feeds, and feeding of tropical aquatic species, 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThis chapter will help the reader understand and appreciate the basic principles of processing, preparation, storage, and quality control in the preparation of aquafeeds. The material in this section is presented in sequence beginning with the processing of basic ingredients to remove antinutritional factors, followed by steps in feed preparation, from the easiest to the more complex processes, and storage. This chapter presents methods and equipment that are useful not only for feed millers, but also for extension workers and fish farmers.
Book | Conference publication
Development and use of alternative ingredients or fish meal substitutes in aquaculture feed formulation: Proceedings of the ASEAN Regional Technical Consultation on Development and Use of Alternative Dietary Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation MR Catacutan, RM Coloso & BO Acosta (Eds.) - 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterRecognizing the need for a concerted effort to follow-up on this priority issue of the ASEAN on aquaculture feed development and utilization. SEAFDEC (Aquaculture Department and Secretariat) and the Government of Myanmar organized the 'Regional Technical Consultation (RTC) on development and Use of Alternative Dietary Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation'. The meeting was convened with the main purpose of providing a forum for charting the regional priorities and future directions on feed development, particularly on the use of alternative feed ingredients or protein substitutes. The specific objectives were to: (i) review the ASEAN-SEAFDEC member country status, constraints associated with developing alternative dietary ingredients for aquaculture feed; (ii) identify specific advances being made in the region with respect to the development of alternative aquaculture feed ingredients; and (iii) define approaches or initiatives supporting catch reduction of low-value/trash fish; (iv) formulate relevant policy recommendations (regional and country-specific) for effective development and utilization of aquaculture feeds; and (v) enhance cooperation among member countries and relevant stakeholders on initiatives that support sustainable aquaculture practices, particularly on feeds. This publication presents the outputs of the RTC. The country reports and review papers presented during the conference which are contained in this volume are cited individually.