Research on marine fishes
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Research on marine fishes at SEAFDEC/AQD from 1995 to date was mostly on milkfish Chanos chanos. Studies focused on the refinement of broodstock and seed production techniques to improve egg and larval production as well as to eliminate morphological deformities in hatchery-bred fry. A verification study with former shrimp hatchery operators demonstrated the technical and economic viability of the AQD-generated milkfish hatchery technology. Production and efficiency of semi-intensive grow-out in ponds were enhanced by the use of formulated feeds and appropriate feeding scheme. Milkfish farming in the Philippines was critically reviewed and recommendations to sustain milkfish culture production were made. Tobacco dust and metaldehyde formulation were proposed as alternatives to organotin-based pesticides in controlling the population of pond snail. The growth hormone of milkfish has been isolated and purified. Addition of highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA)-rich oils in the diet did not improve the quality of spawned eggs of grouper Epinephelus coioides. A protocol for the intensive larval rearing of grouper was developed based on the results of several studies. A semi-intensive seed production method using copepod nauplii during the early feeding stages was also developed as an alternative to intensive method. Metamorphosis of larvae was significantly accelerated by exogenous thyroid hormones. Nutritional studies to reduce the amount of fish meal in grouper diets are in progress. Groupers grown in ponds or cages harbor a variety of parasites. Biochemical criteria to assess the quality of spawned Asian sea bass Lates calcarifer eggs was characterized. Diaphanosoma or other copepods may be an alternative or supplemental live prey to Artemia during sea bass larviculture. A practical diet for sea bass culture was developed. Studies to determine the essential amino acid requirements of sea bass are about to be completed. The effects of immuno-stimulants in sea bass are presented. Induced and natural spawning of mangrove red snapper Lutjanus argentimaculatus in concrete tanks or floating net cages has been documented. An improved larval rearing method has been developed using screened rotifers during the early feeding stage of the larvae. Exogenous thyroid hormones have advanced metamorphosis of larvae. A practical diet for snapper is under development. Research on rabbitfish Siganus guttatus were geared to developing tools for growth enhancement. Pituitary growth hormone (GH) has been cloned, allowing the production of recombinant rabbitfish GH. Rabbitfish prolactin, somatolactin have also been purified. Studies on marine ornamental fish focused on two species of seahorses, Hippocampus kuda and H. barbouri, and on blue tang Paracanthurus hepatus. Progress on the biology, breeding, and seed production of seahorses are presented. Successive natural spawnings of blue tang in concrete circular tank have been recorded.
Toledo, J. D. (2001). Research on marine fishes. In L. M. B. Garcia (Ed.), Responsible Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia. Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia organized by the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department, 12-14 October 1999, Iloilo City, Philippines (pp. 173–184). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department.
PublisherSEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
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Larval and early juvenile development of silver therapon, Leiopotherapon plumbeus (Actinopterygii: Perciformes: Terapontidae), reared in mesocosms FA Aya, MNC Corpuz, MA Laron & LMB Garcia -
Acta Ichthyologica et Piscatoria, 2017 - Szczecińskie Towarzystwo NaukoweThe silver therapon, Leiopotherapon plumbeus (Kner, 1864), is an endemic and economically important freshwater food fish in the Philippines. The natural populations of this species have been declining during the past years, mainly due to intense fishing pressure, habitat degradation, and introduction of invasive alien species. At present, it is considered a target species for domestication and conservation efforts. Despite several attempts of artificial reproduction and larval rearing, little is known on larval and early juvenile development of silver therapon. The presently reported study was therefore intended to fill this gap in the knowledge by determining the growth and describing body proportions, pigmentation, and fin formation of this fish. Newly hatched larvae were reared in mesocosm tanks at a mean temperature of 29.5°C. Larvae up to 30 days after hatching were sampled at irregular intervals and preserved in 5% buffered formalin. Early development stages for 245 preserved specimens were described in detail with reference to changes in morphology, growth and body proportions, pigmentation, and fin formation. Five developmental stages of silver therapon were identified: yolk sac larva (1.88 mm TL), preflexion (2.51 mm TL), notochord flexion (4.50-8.27 mm TL), postflexion larva (6.90-12.21 mm TL), and early juvenile (>13.40 mm TL). Growth was isometric for eye diameter and gape size whereas positive allometry was observed for body depth, head length, and preanal length. Some body proportions showed abrupt changes from preflexion to postflexion larvae before it stabilized during the early juvenile stage. Pigmentation in the form of stellate and punctate melanophores increased with developmental stage, with larvae becoming heavily pigmented from postflexion to early juvenile stage. These morphological changes, together with the full complement of fin rays and squamation observed in specimens larger than 13.4 mm TL, suggest the attainment of the juvenile stage of this species. These morphological changes may explain the food and feeding habits during the early life stages of silver therapon which is critical to their survival and recruitment in the wild and in a mesocosm hatchery environment.
Conference paperK Fukusho - In TU Bagarinao & EEC Flores (Eds.), Towards sustainable aquaculture in Southeast Asia and Japan: Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, Iloilo City, Philippines, 26-28 July, 1994, 1995 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture DepartmentAquaculture production in Japan in 1993 was 1,351,000 tons, 15.6% of the total fisheries production. About 93.6% came from mariculture and 6.4% from freshwater aquaculture. The per cent contribution of aquaculture to total production has increased in recent years but partly because marine fisheries,especially of sardine and pollack, have decreased. Aquaculture has reached a plateau, and decreased slightly between 1992 and 1993. Diverse marine and freshwater species are cultured in Japan — various fishes, crustaceans, mollusks, seaweeds, sea squirt, sea urchin, and others. Research and development in mariculture focus on finding substitutes for animal protein in feeds, improvement of fish quality, protection of the culture environment, use of offshore floating culture systems, and protection from diseases. Research in freshwater aquaculture has expanded to include recreational fishing, the propagation and preservation of endangered species, and the construction of fish ladders for salmonids and other migratory species.
Conference paperCL Marte - In Advances in tropical aquaculture : workshop at Tahiti, French Polynesia, February 20-March 4, 1989, 1990 - IFREMERCommercially important tropical freshwater and marine finfishes are commonly spawned with pituitary homogenate, human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and semi-purified fish gonadotropins. These preparations are often administered in two doses, a lower priming dose followed a few hours later by a higher resolving dose. Interval between the first and second injections may vary from 3 - 24 hours depending on the species. Variable doses are used even for the same species and may be due to variable potencies of the gonadotropin preparations. Synthetic analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRHa) are becoming widely used for inducing ovulation and spawning in a variety of teleosts. For marine species such as milkfish, mullet, sea bass, and rabbitfish, a single LHRHa injection or pellet implant appears to be effective. Multiple spawnings of sea bass have also been obtained following a single injection or pellet implant of a high dose of LHRHa. In a number of freshwater fishes such as the cyprinids, LHRHa alone however has limited efficacy. Standardized methods using LHRHa together with the dopamine antagonists pimozide, domperidone and reserpine have been developed for various species of carps. The technique may also be applicable for spawning marine teleosts that may not respond to LHRHa alone or where a high dose of the peptide is required. Although natural spawning is the preferred method for breeding cultivated fish, induced spawning may be necessary to control timing and synchrony of egg production for practical reasons.