Screening of inexpensive and indigeneous ingredients for use in practical feed for juvile sea bass (Lates calcarifer Bloch)
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An eight-week feeding experiment with juvenile sea bass (about 15 g) was conducted in 500-1 fiberglass tanks to screen the most cost-effective practical diet for use in ponds and floating cages. Eleven formulations and one control feed were tested. Protein sources used were locally available ingredients such as fish meal, shrimp head meal, scrap squid meal, cow's blood meal, poultry feather meal, leaf meals, soybean meal, and mung bean meal. The diets contained a combination of animal and vegetable protein sources such that the essential amino acid composition was close to the requirement or tissue levels. Crude protein and fat levels were about 42% and 8.3%, respectively. Fish were fed ad libitum twice a day at 0800 and 1600 h. Best weight gain (189%) and feed conversion ratio (FCR, 1.7) were observed in fish given a combination of fish meal, shrimp head meal, scrap squid meal, soybean bean meal, and kangkong leaf meal as protein sources. This was followed by those given a combination of fish meal, shrimp head meal, scrap squid meal, soybean meal, and ipil-ipil leaf meal (139% weight gain, FCR of 2.2). Worst growth (22%) and FCR were observed in fish given a combination of fish meal, cow's blood meal, scrap squid meal, soybean meal, and mulberry leaf meal. Control fish given a combination of fish meal, shrimp meal, and soybean meal showed weight gain of 195% and FCR of 1.8. Survival was high (83-100%) in all treatments. The two diets which gave the best growth rates, survival, and FCR in the screening phase can be tried in ponds and floating net cages.
PublisherAquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
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Conference paperIbA Kechik - In TU Bagarinao & EEC Flores (Eds.), Towards sustainable aquaculture in Southeast Asia and Japan: Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, Iloilo City, Philippines, 26-28 July, 1994, 1995 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterAquaculture in Malaysia is experiencing rapid growth. Total production in 1992 amounted to 79,699 tons valued at RM 207.4 million. These figures are 23% and 25% higher than the previous year's. Semi-culture of the cockle Anadara granosa was still predominant, contributing about 70% of the total output. Culture and production of the oyster Crassostrea iredalei is still insignificant. Sea bass Lates calcarifer constituted over 80% of the production from marine cages. Cage culture of grouper Epinephelus sp., snapper Lutjanus sp. and pompano Trachinotus blochii were also done in much smaller scale. The mangrove snapper Lutjanus argentimaculatus was recently spawned in captivity and larvae and juveniles were produced. In 1992, the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon constituted about 87% of brackishwater pond production. Pond culture of the white shrimp P. merguiensis and the mudcrab Scylla sp. is at the experimental stage. Red tilapia hybrid was the major freshwater species cultured in cages, with 1,486 tons harvested in 1992. Freshwater pond production was valued at RM 100.85 million, 22% of which was due to the eel Anguilla japonica. Production of freshwater ornamental fishes is also becoming significant. Other exotic species recently bred and cultured are the African catfish Clarias gariepinus and the pacu Piaractus brachypomus. The indigenous freshwater catfish Mystus nemurus and carp Probarbus julleini have recently been bred in captivity and cultured experimentally. Lately, there have been attempts to culture non-conventional species such as the bullfrog Rana catesbeiana, the soft-shell turtle Trionyx sinensis, and aquatic ornamental plants.
Conference paperS Sahavacharin - In TU Bagarinao & EEC Flores (Eds.), Towards sustainable aquaculture in Southeast Asia and Japan: Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, Iloilo City, Philippines, 26-28 July, 1994, 1995 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterCoastal aquaculture in Thailand has expanded rapidly in both area and production in the last decade. The important cultured species are the shrimps (Penaeus monodon and P. merguiensis), sea bass Lates calcarifer, groupers Epinephelus malabaricus and E. tauvina, green mussel Perna viridis, horse mussel Modiolus senhausenii, blood cockles Anadara granosa and A. nodifera and the oysters Crassostrea belcheri, C. lugubris and Saccostrea commercialis. The total production from coastal aquaculture in 1991 was 230,444 tons, consisting of 70.3% shrimp, 28.8% mollusks, and 0.9% fishes. The seaweeds Gracilaria spp., pearl oysters, scallops, and abalones are cultured on a pilot scale in some places. Hatchery technologies have recently been developed for groupers, oysters, scallops, and abalones. Expanded aquaculture has had some adverse effects on the environment and has also suffered from the environmental changes and conflicts due to other sectors using the same water and other resources.
Conference paperSM Aypa - In TU Bagarinao & EEC Flores (Eds.), Towards sustainable aquaculture in Southeast Asia and Japan: Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, Iloilo City, Philippines, 26-28 July, 1994, 1995 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterAquaculture is regarded as the most promising source of protein food in the years ahead. Milkfish and Nile tilapia are the major fishes now produced but groupers, sea bass, rabbitfish, red snappers, carps, and catfishes are grown by some farmers. The tiger shrimp is still the most important cultured crustacean, but white shrimps and mudcrabs also have great potential. Oysters and mussels are produced in considerable amounts. Mariculture of the seaweed Eucheuma is now a well established industry, and the pond culture of Gracilaria for agar extraction is beginning to take off.