The commercial production of green grouper fingerlings, Epinephelus suillus, from wild caught fry - an industry experience
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Wild-caught fry of the green groupers, Epinephelus malabaricus and E. suillus ranging in standard lengths (SL) from 1.5 to 3.0 cm were bought from different fry dealers all over the Philippines. These were reared from 1.0 to 2.5 months in 10 to 40 m3 (small) concrete tanks, in 240 m3 (large) concrete nursery tanks with sandy bottom, in 10 m3 hapa nets installed either in large nursery concrete tanks with sandy bottom or in 0.8 to 1.0 ha earthen ponds. The initial stocking density was 33-150/m3. When the fingerlings reached 5 to 7 cm SL, these were harvested and stocked in cages. The wild fry were fed adult brine shrimps for the first few days and later, trash fish. Rearing water in small concrete tanks was changed daily while that in large nursery tanks and hapas was changed only when dissolved oxygen level was about 4 ppt or lower. Survival rates ranged from 3% to 64%. Although survival rates varied, rearing grouper fry in hapa nets installed in earthen ponds were found to be the most suitable for the commercial production of grouper fingerlings to a size suitable for stocking in cages. The large variation in survival rates is attributed mainly to the quality of wild fry bought from different fry dealers all over the country and the occurrence of diseases during the culture period. The problems encountered in the commercial production of fingerlings are discussed.
Juario, J. V., Silapan, J. R., & Silapan Jr., L. L. (1996). The commercial production of green grouper fingerlings, Epinephelus suillus, from wild caught fry - an industry experience. In C. L. Marte, G. F. Quinitio, & A. C. Emata (Eds.), Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Breeding and Seed Production of Cultured Finfishes in the Philippines, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 4-5 May 1993 (pp. 132-139). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center. http://hdl.handle.net/10862/573
PublisherAquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
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Conference paperMNR Alava, MLL Dolar & JA Luchavez - In CL Marte, GF Quinitio & AC Emata (Eds.), Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Breeding and Seed Production of Cultured Finfishes in the Philippines, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 4-5 May 1993, 1996 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterNatural spawnings of four Epinephelus species reared in the laboratory were observed from 1987 to 1992. These species are: E. summana, E. caeruleopunctatus, E. macrospilus and E. fuscoguttatus. Spawning was serial, usually occurring at night, on or 1-6 days after the new moon. Egg characteristics of these four species were compared. Fertilized egg and early larval development of E. summana and E. fuscoguttatus are discussed.
BookBureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards - 2009 - Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries StandardsThis Philippine National Standard for live, chilled/frozen grouper identifies the Philippine species of grouper, specifies their essential composition and quality factors (including size classification and quality characteristics), provides the presentation, packaging and labeling requirements, indicates the methods sampling, examination and analyses, and defines the types of defectives. It is hoped that this standard accomplishes our two pronged goal of protecting consumer health and making the Philippine fish and fishery products globally competitive.
BookAsia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, & Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center - 2001 - Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation; Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThe groupers (Family Serranidae) are among the most popular species in the live reef food fish industry in the Asia-Pacific region. Groupers are generally fast growing, hardy, suitable for intensive culture, and with excellent characteristics for processing. The high demand for these fishes is due to their unique culinary attributes and scarcity. In 1997, the Asia-Pacific region contributed about 90% to the total world aquaculture production. The regional production of farmed grouper was estimated at 15,000 tons, with China as the biggest producer contributing 8,000 tons followed closely by Indonesia. Other countries in the region commonly produce 1,000-2,000 tons annually in 1990- 1997. Groupers are generally cultured in floating net cages or earthen ponds, but cage culture is more common in Southeast Asia. Grouper pond production is becoming an attractive alternative to intensive shrimp culture in countries where management problems have forced growers to abandon shrimp farming. Although grouper culture is widespread in Asia and the Pacific, its continued development is constrained by the limited availability of fingerlings. Most economies, with the recent exception of Chinese Taipei, rely almost totally on wild-caught fry and fingerlings for stocking. This demand for wild seeds has led to unsustainable and illegal collection practices such as the use of cyanide to capture large numbers of seed with relatively less investment in time and effort. The inadequate supply of seed is further aggravated by the lack of appropriate handling techniques during collection, transport and storage of collected fish, and sometimes by an unregulated management of the wild stocks. There is also the lack of appropriate techniques for efficient grouper culture to marketable sizes. A major production constraint is heavy mortality of groupers during the collection and culture phases due to handling stress and diseases. The utilization of non-destructive devices for grouper collection, proper fish handling and increased efficiency in culture management can result to socio-economic and environmental benefits. A well-developed grouper culture operation complemented by appropriate wild grouper fishery management can provide sustainable employment to many people – from marginal fishers to farmers to traders. Grouper fisheries based on illegal or destructive fishing practices underlines the urgent need for habitat protection and sustainable utilization of natural resources. The objective of this manual is to provide a farmer-friendly practical guide for grouper farmers in the Asia-Pacific economies. It is hoped that this manual will enhance farmers’ ability to culture and handle grouper, as well as to prevent and manage disease outbreaks.