A review of grouper (Epinephelus suillus) fry production research in Malaysia
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Research on grouper (Epinephelus suillus) fry production in captivity has been carried out in Malaysia since 1986 at Tanjung Demong Marine Finfish Production and Research Centre (TDMFPRC) but the breakthrough was only achieved four years later in 1990. Eggs were obtained through natural and induced spawning in tanks. Natural spawning of grouper in captivity seldom occurred and was unpredictable. However induced spawnings were successfully carried out by injecting human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) intramuscularly at a dose of 500-1000 IU/kg fish. The results from several trials on larval rearing conducted since 1989 until recently showed that larvae obtained from natural spawnings survived longer with some reaching the juvenile stage. The highest recorded survival rate of 43 days posthatch (32.5 mm total length) was 12.1% at 28-32 °C water temperature. On the other hand, 100% mortality usually occurred in larvae obtained from induced spawning 7 days after hatching. The major constraints of grouper fry production in Malaysia are lack of male spawners, inconsistent and unpredictable natural spawning, small quantity of eggs released every spawning day, poor fertilization and hatching rate, weak hatchlings, and high mortality rate at the early stages of larval development. The latter is probably due mainly to problems on initial feeding.
Ali, H. M. (1996). A review of grouper (Epinephelus suillus) fry production research in Malaysia. In C. L. Marte, G. F. Quinitio, & A. C. Emata (Eds.), Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Breeding and Seed Production of Cultured Finfishes in the Philippines, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 4-5 May 1993 (pp. 140-149). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department.
PublisherSEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
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BookBureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards - 2009 - Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries StandardsThis Philippine National Standard for live, chilled/frozen grouper identifies the Philippine species of grouper, specifies their essential composition and quality factors (including size classification and quality characteristics), provides the presentation, packaging and labeling requirements, indicates the methods sampling, examination and analyses, and defines the types of defectives. It is hoped that this standard accomplishes our two pronged goal of protecting consumer health and making the Philippine fish and fishery products globally competitive.
Conference paperMNR Alava, MLL Dolar & JA Luchavez - In CL Marte, GF Quinitio & AC Emata (Eds.), Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Breeding and Seed Production of Cultured Finfishes in the Philippines, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 4-5 May 1993, 1996 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture DepartmentNatural spawnings of four Epinephelus species reared in the laboratory were observed from 1987 to 1992. These species are: E. summana, E. caeruleopunctatus, E. macrospilus and E. fuscoguttatus. Spawning was serial, usually occurring at night, on or 1-6 days after the new moon. Egg characteristics of these four species were compared. Fertilized egg and early larval development of E. summana and E. fuscoguttatus are discussed.
BookAsia-Pacific Economic Cooperation & Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center - 2001 - Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation; SEAFDEC Aquaculture DepartmentThe groupers (Family Serranidae) are among the most popular species in the live reef food fish industry in the Asia-Pacific region. Groupers are generally fast growing, hardy, suitable for intensive culture, and with excellent characteristics for processing. The high demand for these fishes is due to their unique culinary attributes and scarcity. In 1997, the Asia-Pacific region contributed about 90% to the total world aquaculture production. The regional production of farmed grouper was estimated at 15,000 tons, with China as the biggest producer contributing 8,000 tons followed closely by Indonesia. Other countries in the region commonly produce 1,000-2,000 tons annually in 1990- 1997. Groupers are generally cultured in floating net cages or earthen ponds, but cage culture is more common in Southeast Asia. Grouper pond production is becoming an attractive alternative to intensive shrimp culture in countries where management problems have forced growers to abandon shrimp farming. Although grouper culture is widespread in Asia and the Pacific, its continued development is constrained by the limited availability of fingerlings. Most economies, with the recent exception of Chinese Taipei, rely almost totally on wild-caught fry and fingerlings for stocking. This demand for wild seeds has led to unsustainable and illegal collection practices such as the use of cyanide to capture large numbers of seed with relatively less investment in time and effort. The inadequate supply of seed is further aggravated by the lack of appropriate handling techniques during collection, transport and storage of collected fish, and sometimes by an unregulated management of the wild stocks. There is also the lack of appropriate techniques for efficient grouper culture to marketable sizes. A major production constraint is heavy mortality of groupers during the collection and culture phases due to handling stress and diseases. The utilization of non-destructive devices for grouper collection, proper fish handling and increased efficiency in culture management can result to socio-economic and environmental benefits. A well-developed grouper culture operation complemented by appropriate wild grouper fishery management can provide sustainable employment to many people – from marginal fishers to farmers to traders. Grouper fisheries based on illegal or destructive fishing practices underlines the urgent need for habitat protection and sustainable utilization of natural resources. The objective of this manual is to provide a farmer-friendly practical guide for grouper farmers in the Asia-Pacific economies. It is hoped that this manual will enhance farmers’ ability to culture and handle grouper, as well as to prevent and manage disease outbreaks.