The use of chemicals in aquaculture in India
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A review of the use of chemotherapeutants and other chemicals and drugs in Indian aquaculture is presented. A large number of products are used for various purposes such as soil and water treatments, disinfectants, piscicides, herbicides, organic and inorganic fertilizers, feed additives, therapeutants, and anesthetics. Farm management techniques for the use of chemicals are discussed, as are the hazards posed by, and impacts resulting from chemical use. Other approaches to disease prevention (crop holiday, pond preparation, regulating stocking density, effluent treatment systems) are considered, and national regulations on the use of chemicals in aquaculture and current research being conducted in India are summarized. Recommendations for the improved use of chemicals in Indian aquaculture are provided for farmers, government and aquaculture institutions, the chemical industry, regional and international agencies, and research institutions.
Pathak, S. C., Ghosh, S. K., & Palanisamy, K. (2000). The use of chemicals in aquaculture in India. In: J. R. Arthur, C. R. Lavilla-Pitogo, & R. P. Subasinghe (Eds.) Use of Chemicals in Aquaculture in Asia : Proceedings of the Meeting on the Use of Chemicals in Aquaculture in Asia 20-22 May 1996, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines (pp. 87-112). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center. http://hdl.handle.net/10862/604
PublisherAquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
Stocking density; Aquaculture effluents; Ichthyocides; Anaesthetics; Aquaculture regulations; Husbandry diseases; Bacterial diseases; Pond culture; Environmental impact; Herbicides; Aquaculture; Control resistance; Feed composition; Disinfectants; Fertilizers; Water treatment; Pollutants; Fish diseases; International organizations; Prophylaxis; Chemical pollutants; Fish culture; India
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Conference paperIC Liao, JJ Guo & MS Su - In JR Arthur, CR Lavilla-Pitogo & RP Subasinghe (Eds.), Use of Chemicals in Aquaculture in Asia : Proceedings of the Meeting on the Use of Chemicals in Aquaculture in Asia 20-22 May 1996, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 2000 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterAquaculture in Taiwan has a history of more than three centuries. To satisfy consumer preferences, a wide variety of aquatic species, 71 in 1993, are being cultured in Taiwan. It is difficult to control diseases when many species are cultured and stocking densities are high. At present, it is important to manage the use and application of chemotherapeutants effectively. Many aquatic animal diseases fall under the category of potentially curable illnesses. These include diseases of bacterial, protozoan, fungal, and environmental etiologies. This paper summarizes the chemicals used in aquaculture, farm management practices, alternative disease prevention methods, national regulations, and the current research on chemical use for aquaculture in Taiwan.
Conference paperH Sako - In TU Bagarinao & EEC Flores (Eds.), Towards sustainable aquaculture in Southeast Asia and Japan: Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, Iloilo City, Philippines, 26-28 July, 1994, 1995 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterLosses of cultured marine and freshwater fishes due to diseases averaged about 20,000 tons each year or 6% of the aquaculture production in Japan in 1980-1991. During this last decade, bacterial diseases have been responsible for most of the losses. Three trends are evident from epidemiological data. First, diseases caused by bacteria with multiple drug resistance are prevalent, and these are difficult to overcome by chemotherapy. Second, parasitic diseases and viral diseases that are practically impossible to cure are increasing. Third, some diseases seem to originate in juveniles (seed) imported from other countries. Further research should focus on: (1) improving dietary and environmental conditions, (2) giving the host animals resistance against disease through methods such as vaccination, and (3) developing diagnostic and disinfection procedures for epidemics. Active exchange of information is necessary to prevent, or alleviate the effects of, the spread of diseases through international export and import of juveniles.
Conference paperO Lang & M Sothea - In RV Pakingking Jr., EGT de Jesus-Ayson & BO Acosta (Eds.), Addressing Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND) and Other Transboundary Diseases for Improved Aquatic … Diseases for Improved Aquatic Animal Health in Southeast Asia, 22-24 February 2016, Makati City, Philippines, 2016 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThe farming of penaeid shrimps in Cambodia began in 1989 and has significantly expanded since 1991. Shrimp cultivation has been carried out in the four coastal provinces, i.e. Kampot, Kep, Preah Sihanouk Ville, and Koh Kong. Black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) and whiteleg shrimp (P. vannamei) are the main species being cultured extensively and intensively in brackishwater ponds in Kampot, Kep, and Preah Sihanouk Ville, and Koh Kong, respectively. Extensive shrimp ponds were constructed close to the mangrove areas with some containing mangroves within the pond and stocking density ranging from 5,000 to 20,000 postlarvae/ha. However, the productivity remains low at >100 kg/ ha/ year. On the contrary, intensive culture has a stocking density ranging from 300,000 to 500,000 postlarvae/ha. While high cost of investment for farm establishment, pond construction and farm operation are required, productions of newly established farms have reached 7 to 8 metric tons (MT) /ha per crop. The occurrence of white spot disease, monodon baculovirus disease, and yellow head disease was first reported in 1999 among cultured P. monodon in Koh Kong province causing a number of farmers to stop the intensive cultivation of black tiger shrimp. To date, only a small proportion of shrimp farmers have ventured into extensive shrimp farming with approximately 10 ha of shrimp areas currently in operation. To mitigate the negative impacts of shrimp diseases and promote the expansion of the shrimp industry in Cambodia, development of a national reporting system for aquatic animal diseases; capacity building for detection, monitoring and disease surveillance; creation of National Guidelines On Good Shrimp Aquaculture Practices; establishment of subresearch centers and concomitant funding support for marine aquaculture development and extension services; establishment of local shrimp hatcheries and provision of hands-on trainings for farmers; and strengthening collaborations among provincial officers, researchers and farmers network should be accordingly instituted.