The use of chemicals in aquaculture in India
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A review of the use of chemotherapeutants and other chemicals and drugs in Indian aquaculture is presented. A large number of products are used for various purposes such as soil and water treatments, disinfectants, piscicides, herbicides, organic and inorganic fertilizers, feed additives, therapeutants, and anesthetics. Farm management techniques for the use of chemicals are discussed, as are the hazards posed by, and impacts resulting from chemical use. Other approaches to disease prevention (crop holiday, pond preparation, regulating stocking density, effluent treatment systems) are considered, and national regulations on the use of chemicals in aquaculture and current research being conducted in India are summarized. Recommendations for the improved use of chemicals in Indian aquaculture are provided for farmers, government and aquaculture institutions, the chemical industry, regional and international agencies, and research institutions.
Pathak, S. C., Ghosh, S. K., & Palanisamy, K. (2000). The use of chemicals in aquaculture in India. In: J. R. Arthur, C. R. Lavilla-Pitogo, & R. P. Subasinghe (Eds.) Use of Chemicals in Aquaculture in Asia : Proceedings of the Meeting on the Use of Chemicals in Aquaculture in Asia 20-22 May 1996, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines (pp. 87-112). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center.
PublisherSEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
Stocking density; Aquaculture effluents; Ichthyocides; Anaesthetics; Aquaculture regulations; Husbandry diseases; Bacterial diseases; Pond culture; Environmental impact; Herbicides; Aquaculture; Control resistance; Feed composition; Disinfectants; Fertilizers; Water treatment; Pollutants; Fish diseases; International organizations; Prophylaxis; Chemical pollutants; Fish culture; India
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Conference paperIC Liao, JJ Guo & MS Su - In JR Arthur, CR Lavilla-Pitogo & RP Subasinghe (Eds.), Use of Chemicals in Aquaculture in Asia : Proceedings of the Meeting on the Use of Chemicals in Aquaculture in Asia 20-22 May 1996, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 2000 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture DepartmentAquaculture in Taiwan has a history of more than three centuries. To satisfy consumer preferences, a wide variety of aquatic species, 71 in 1993, are being cultured in Taiwan. It is difficult to control diseases when many species are cultured and stocking densities are high. At present, it is important to manage the use and application of chemotherapeutants effectively. Many aquatic animal diseases fall under the category of potentially curable illnesses. These include diseases of bacterial, protozoan, fungal, and environmental etiologies. This paper summarizes the chemicals used in aquaculture, farm management practices, alternative disease prevention methods, national regulations, and the current research on chemical use for aquaculture in Taiwan.
Conference paperH Sako - In TU Bagarinao & EEC Flores (Eds.), Towards sustainable aquaculture in Southeast Asia and Japan: Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, Iloilo City, Philippines, 26-28 July, 1994, 1995 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture DepartmentLosses of cultured marine and freshwater fishes due to diseases averaged about 20,000 tons each year or 6% of the aquaculture production in Japan in 1980-1991. During this last decade, bacterial diseases have been responsible for most of the losses. Three trends are evident from epidemiological data. First, diseases caused by bacteria with multiple drug resistance are prevalent, and these are difficult to overcome by chemotherapy. Second, parasitic diseases and viral diseases that are practically impossible to cure are increasing. Third, some diseases seem to originate in juveniles (seed) imported from other countries. Further research should focus on: (1) improving dietary and environmental conditions, (2) giving the host animals resistance against disease through methods such as vaccination, and (3) developing diagnostic and disinfection procedures for epidemics. Active exchange of information is necessary to prevent, or alleviate the effects of, the spread of diseases through international export and import of juveniles.
Conference paperBC Kua, A Iar, A Siti Zahrah, J Irene, J Norazila, NY Nik Haiha, Y Fadzilah, M Mohammed, B Siti Rokhaiya, M Omar & TP Teoh - In RV Pakingking Jr., EGT de Jesus-Ayson & BO Acosta (Eds.), Addressing Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND) and Other Transboundary Diseases for Improved Aquatic … Diseases for Improved Aquatic Animal Health in Southeast Asia, 22-24 February 2016, Makati City, Philippines, 2016 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterA report about a disease problem in cultured whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) was first received by the National Fish Health Research Center (NaFisH) in 2011 from Perak State showing signs of white feces and slow death leading to serious mortality rate. Later, in September of the same year, the Malaysian Shrimp Farmers Association (MSFA) reported to Department of Fisheries (DOF) severe mortalities in almost all of the whiteleg shrimp farms throughout Peninsular Malaysia. Sampling of shrimps for disease diagnosis was then conducted by NaFisH. The bacteriological and histopathological examinations revealed respectively the isolation of V. parahemolyticus and massive sloughing of hepatopancreatic epithelial cells. The disease was subsequently identified as acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND). From our 3-year study, the annual prevalence rates of AHPND were 50%, 26% and 73% in 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. At present, AHPND still persists in Malaysia but at a lower prevalence. The risk factors associated with the disease were studied, however, varied environmental and management data analyzed were inconclusive to relate any one parameter directly to the disease. To help ensure the early detection of AHPND, an experimental observation study on `gut scorecard was carried out and this was confirmed by PCR and histopathology. Validation of this technique has yet to be carried out to ensure its reliability. We also examined the potential use of some commercial products such as probiotics and disinfectants available in the market but unfortunately results showed that they were not effective in controlling AHPND. Control measures applied by the farmers such as the use of probiotics were also verified but data generated likewise appeared to be inconclusive. On the contrary, our preliminary study on the antibacterial property of the plant extracts, i.e. betel and lemongrass, incorporated in the feed showed some prophylactic and chemotherapeutic potential against AHPND. However, comprehensive in vitro and in vivo trials are still currently being undertaken to elucidate its efficacy and practical applications. To ensure the shrimp industry s sustainability in Malaysia, results of our ongoing and future studies aimed at preventing and controlling unwarranted outbreaks of AHPND and other emerging transboundary diseases of penaeid shrimps will be continually disseminated to shrimp farmers and pertinent stakeholders.