Antibacterial chemotherapy in aquaculture: review of practice, associated risks and need for action
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This paper briefly reviews the use of chemicals to prevent and treat bacterial diseases in aquaculture, and provides a detailed summary of the current state of knowledge on the development of bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents in fish and shellfish. The topics covered include mechanisms of resistance, resistance of bacterial fish pathogens, resistance to antibacterial agents associated with use in aquaculture, and factors causing selection of resistant variants. Emphasis is placed on avoiding and solving problems related to bacterial resistance in aquaculture, and recommendations on antibiotic usage in aquaculture are made.
Inglis, V. (2000). Antibacterial chemotherapy in aquaculture: review of practice, associated risks and need for action. In: J. R. Arthur, C. R. Lavilla-Pitogo, & R. P. Subasinghe (Eds.) Use of Chemicals in Aquaculture in Asia : Proceedings of the Meeting on the Use of Chemicals in Aquaculture in Asia 20-22 May 1996, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines (pp. 7-22). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center.
PublisherSEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
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Conference paperH Sako - In TU Bagarinao & EEC Flores (Eds.), Towards sustainable aquaculture in Southeast Asia and Japan: Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, Iloilo City, Philippines, 26-28 July, 1994, 1995 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture DepartmentLosses of cultured marine and freshwater fishes due to diseases averaged about 20,000 tons each year or 6% of the aquaculture production in Japan in 1980-1991. During this last decade, bacterial diseases have been responsible for most of the losses. Three trends are evident from epidemiological data. First, diseases caused by bacteria with multiple drug resistance are prevalent, and these are difficult to overcome by chemotherapy. Second, parasitic diseases and viral diseases that are practically impossible to cure are increasing. Third, some diseases seem to originate in juveniles (seed) imported from other countries. Further research should focus on: (1) improving dietary and environmental conditions, (2) giving the host animals resistance against disease through methods such as vaccination, and (3) developing diagnostic and disinfection procedures for epidemics. Active exchange of information is necessary to prevent, or alleviate the effects of, the spread of diseases through international export and import of juveniles.
Conference paperH Supriyadi & A Rukyani - In JR Arthur, CR Lavilla-Pitogo & RP Subasinghe (Eds.), Use of Chemicals in Aquaculture in Asia : Proceedings of the Meeting on the Use of Chemicals in Aquaculture in Asia 20-22 May 1996, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 2000 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture DepartmentAquaculture systems in Indonesia have developed toward intensive culture. As a result of intensification of fish culture, increased outbreaks of disease have occurred. Various chemotherapeutic agents like antibiotics and other chemicals have been widely used for treatment and prevention of infectious diseases in fish and shrimp farms. Antibiotics such as oxytetracycline, chloramphenicol, neomycin, streptomycin, erythromycin, prefuran and enrofloxacin are used in the treatment of bacterial diseases. Other chemicals such as malachite green oxalate, potassium permanganate, formalin, methylene blue, chlorine and teaseed have been used for the treatment of various diseases. Organic fertilizers, such as chicken manure, and inorganic fertilizers like urea and trisodium phosphate are often applied by shrimp farmers to improve primary productivity in ponds. Bacterial products with trade names like “Multi bacter,” “Enviro star” and “Super NB” have recently been used by shrimp farmers to decompose organic matter resulting from excessive feeding. Feed additives such as vitamin C, “Protec Plus,” and “Super Embak” are used for disease prevention.
Human health aspects of the use of chemicals in aquaculture, with special emphasis on food safety and regulations P Sinhaseni, M Limpoka & O Samatiwat - In JR Arthur, CR Lavilla-Pitogo & RP Subasinghe (Eds.), Use of Chemicals in Aquaculture in Asia : Proceedings of the Meeting on the Use of Chemicals in Aquaculture in Asia 20-22 May 1996, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 2000 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture DepartmentSafe and wholesome food is essential for good health. Therefore, when one considers health issues related to unsafe foods, recorded morbidity and mortality as well as economic losses in a population must be included. Due to their presence in unsafe food, micro-organisms are generally considered to pose a major risk to human health. In aquaculture, chemicals are used mainly in the treatment and prophylaxis of disease problems, which constitute the largest single cause of economic losses. However, the increasing use of chemicals in aquaculture has led to wide-spread public concern. The concerns related to human health due to chemical use in aquaculture are repeatedly found in the published literature. They include allergic reactions in previously sensitized persons triggered by chemical residues, and the potential impacts on human health resulting from the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria caused by the use of sub-therapeutic levels of antibiotics and by antibiotic residues persisting in the sediments of aquaculture environments. This paper discusses the risk evaluation principles, data requirements and the concept of maximum residue limit. The uncertainties inherent in the process include, but are not limited to, the state-of-the-art of toxicological evaluation, the level of understanding of the environmental transport process of chemicals, the exposure data available, and any assumptions and extrapolations.