Report of aquatic animal diseases in Thailand during January – June 2019
Aquaculture is an important industry in Thailand which has been established more than two decades ago. The cultured species are divided into two main groups; shrimp and finfish farming. The major cultured shrimp species are Penaeus vannamei (Pacific white shrimp), P. monodon (black tiger shrimp) and Macrobrachium rosenbergii (giant freshwater prawn), whereas the finfish are Oreochromis sp., Lates calcarifer and Epinephelus sp. Also, ornamental fish such as Cyprinus carpio (Koi carp), Carassius spp. (goldfish), and Betta splendens (fighting fish or betta). Disease outbreaks are the key factor that affect Thailand’s aquaculture production and resulting in economic losses. The infectious diseases in aquaculture are mainly caused by viral and bacterial pathogens. In 2018, the reported shrimp pathogens are white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), yellow head virus (YHV) genotype 1, Taura syndrome virus (TSV), infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), Vibrio parahaemolyticus causing acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (VPAHPND), and microsporidian Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP). On the other hand, the reported pathogens in finfish are Betanodavirus causing viral nervous necrosis (VNN), Tilapia lake virus (TiLV) and Streptococcus sp. etc. In Thailand, the Department of Fisheries (DOF) is the competent authority for various aspects of aquatic animals including aquatic animal health. Strategies to prevent and control diseases in aquatic animals include issuance of legislations/regulations, implementation of biosecurity measures, disease surveillance programs, capacity building, cooperation with international and national organizations. Moreover, DOF has developed contingency plan in dealing with aquatic animal disease emergencies through the provincial fisheries officer. The provincial fisheries officer acts as director of emergency aquatic animal disease control center in each province, while Aquatic Animal Health Research and Development Division (AAHRDD) and Songkhla Aquatic Animal Health Research and Development Center (SAAHRC) serve as disease diagnosis and laboratory testing centers. Because of the above actions, we are capable of preventing and controlling disease outbreaks in the country. But during the occurrence of some diseases, we have no treatment to support and completely solve the problem. Example are viral diseases, unlike bacterial diseases which can be treated by using chemical or drug. Furthermore, there are a few researches that could be applied in farm level. Especially shrimp which has no adaptive immunity, so it is difficult to develop vaccine compare to fish. Therefore, DOF mostly recommended farmers to follow the good management practices on aquatic animal health for promoting sustainable aquaculture.
Tinwongger, S. (2021). Report of aquatic animal diseases in Thailand during January – June 2019. In F. A. Aya, L. D. de la Peña, N. D. Salayo, & E. A. Tendencia (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Workshop on the Promotion of Sustainable Aquaculture, Aquatic Animal Health, and Resource Enhancement in Southeast Asia (pp. 179–184). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center.
ISBN9789719931102 (Print); 9789719931119 (PDF)
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