An ecological approach to mariculture of shrimp: Shrimp ranching fisheries.
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Mariculture production in Japan has grown recently to nearly one million tons per year. Mariculture production in the shallow coastal waters of Japan mainly consists of eight species of finfish, six species of shellfish, and three species of algae. Kuruma shrimp culture techniques are highly developed. Nevertheless, only 1,800 tons of kuruma shrimp can be produced yearly. There is a demand for this species but culture grounds have become limited and there is not enough space to raise shrimp. In 1980, 600 million postlarvae were produced but one-half had to be released to the sea. The released shrimp that survived and grew have formed a new basis for the "Sea Ranching Fisheries" industry. The trial releases of postlarvae have proven that sea ranching of shrimp can be successful. To strengthen the foundation of sea ranching fisheries, there must be future research on ecological impact, as well as on physico-chemical water parameters. The life cycle, feeding habits, and predators of the shrimp must also be studied. Recent releases in Hamana-ko Lagoon, Shizuoka Prefecture, made by the research group of the Hamana-ko Substation of the Shizuoka Prefectural Fisheries Research Station have demonstrated the possibilities of sea ranching. This report discusses the research studies obtained at Hamana-ko Lagoon and the main problems of the use of this sea ranching method in mangrove swamp areas of Southeast Asia.
Uno, Y. (1985). An ecological approach to mariculture of shrimp: shrimp ranching fisheries. In Taki Y., Primavera J.H. and Llobrera J.A. (Eds.). Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines (pp. 37-45). Iloilo City, Philippines: Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center.
PublisherAquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
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Conference paperJP Altamirano, N Salayo, H Kurokura, H Fushimi & S Ishikawa - In K Hajime, T Iwata, Y Theparoonrat, N Manajit & VT Sulit (Eds.), Consolidating the Strategies for Fishery Resources Enhancement in Southeast Asia. Proceedings of the Symposium … Strategy for Fisheries Resources Enhancement in the Southeast Asian Region, Pattaya, Thailand, 27-30 July 2015, 2016 - Training Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterIn central Philippines, the Aquaculture Department of the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC/AQD), with strong collaboration and support from the Research Institute for Humanity and Nature (RIHN) of Kyoto, Japan, has been looking into the stock enhancement of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon in the New Washington Estuary (NWE), province of Aklan, central Philippines. The NWE was a productive fishing ground that has been suffering from degenerating brackishwater fisheries and estuarine environment. Average daily catch declined from 24 kg in 1970s to only 0.7 kg at present. Shrimp fisheries, the most important livelihood, declined in quality and quantity. Tiger shrimps were abundant in catch until the early 1990s when these were observed to decline in volume, replaced by smaller and cheaper species. This was coincidental with the rapid decline in mangrove cover for ponds and huge increase in fishing pressure. It is clear that crucial interventions are required to restore the tiger shrimp fisheries in the NWE in order to increase income of local fishers, while promoting reduction of fishing gears and restoration of mangroves. Stock enhancement of tiger shrimps shows good potential in answering these needs. Site-specific assessments were conducted to evaluate prospects of shrimp stock enhancement in NWE. Conservative simulations of capture of released stocks showed that fishers can increase income by 300%. To decrease fishing pressure in the area, number of gears per fisher may have to be reduced but shrimp catches will be relatively high-priced. Comparative experiments using aquaculture techniques were done to identify strategies especially in the delicate intermediate acclimation rearing. Aquaculture protocols like those for pond preparation were also adapted to be used in a mangrove pen nursery rearing system for shrimps. Supplemental feeding with formulated feeds increased carrying capacity of the culture area, while enhancing growth and survival of stocks. Culture experiments showed that shrimps grow to 0.5 g within 1 mo and >1g in 2 mo. High stocking density of 40-60 shrimps m-2 can be used for <2 mo rearing in a mangrove pen. Release experiments showed that 60-d old shrimps have higher chances of survival when released in the estuaries. With strong support from local communities, government and other sectors, together with effective management and law enforcement, aquaculture-based stock enhancement of tiger shrimps can be a viable intervention to restore livelihood and promote estuarine rehabilitation in the NWE.
Traditional devices and gear for collecting fry of "sugpo" giant tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon in the Philippines. H Motoh - 1980 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
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BookSY Sim, MA Rimmer, JD Toledo, K Sugama, I Rumengan, K Williams & MJ Phillips - 2005 - Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific
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