Water quality criteria for farming the grass shrimp, Penaeus monodon
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Physiological and growth effects of pH, salinity, temperature, heavy metals, pesticides and others on juvenile grass shrimp Penaeus monodon have been investigated to determine the biologically safe concentrations. Optimal pH, salinity and temperature are found to be in the range of 8.0-8.5, 15-25 ppt, and 28-33°C, respectively. A dissolved oxygen concentration of 3.7 ppm seems to be the critical oxygen pressure to support the normal life of grass shrimp. To avoid poor survival and retarded growth, the recommended level for each pollutant are: heavy metals, 0.0025 ppm Hg, 0.1 ppm Cu, 0.15 ppm Cd, 0.25 ppm Zn; pesticides, 0.0004 ppb parathion, 0.001 ppb malathion, 0.008 ppb rotenone, 0.01 ppb Azodrin, 0.033 ppb Saturn, 0.01 ppb paraquat, 0.01 ppb Endosulfan, 1 ppb Butachlor; surfactants, 0.1 ppm Dunall OSE, 0.2 ppm BP 1100, 0.5 ppm Seagreen 805; and others, 0.033 ppm H2S, 0.1 ppm NH3.
Chen, H.-C. (1985). Water quality criteria for farming the grass shrimp, Penaeus monodon (Abtract only). In Taki Y., Primavera J.H. and Llobrera J.A. (Eds.). Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines (p.165). Iloilo City Philippines: Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center.