Impact of AMPEP on the growth and occurrence of epiphytic Neosiphonia infestation on two varieties of commercially cultivated Kappaphycus alvarezii grown at different depths in the Philippines
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Two varieties of the carrageenophyte Kappaphycus alvarezii (Tungawan, TUNG; and Giant tambalang, GTAM) from Zamboanga Sibugay, Philippines were used to test the efficacy of Acadian Marine Plant Extract Powder (AMPEP) as source of nutrients for growth, and to determine if applications had any effect on the percent occurrence of an epiphytic infestation of the red alga Neosiphonia sp. at four different depths in the sea. Results showed that the use of AMPEP significantly (P < 0.05) increased the growth rate of both Kappaphycus varieties tested but decreased the percent occurrence of Neosiphonia sp. The percent occurrence of Neosiphonia sp. infection (6–50% at all depths) of both Kappaphycus varieties with AMPEP treatment was significantly lower than the controls (i.e., 10–75% at all depths). Both the growth rate of the cultivated seaweed and the percent occurrence of the epiphytes decreased as the cultivation depth increased. Plants dipped in AMPEP and suspended at the surface had the highest growth rates (i.e., 4.1%, TUNG; 3.1%, GTAM) after 45 days; those without AMPEP dipping had the highest percent occurrence of Neosiphonia infection (viz. 70–75%). The occurrence of Neosiphonia infestation was found to be correlated with changes in irradiance and salinity at the depths observed. The results suggested that both varieties of K. alvarezii used in this study have the fastest growth rate when grown immediately at the water surface. However, in order to minimize damage caused by the occurrence of epiphytic Neosiphonia, K. alvarezii should be grown within a depth range of 50–100 cm. These observations are important for the improved management of Kappaphycus for commercial farming. Furthermore, the use of AMPEP treatments for enhancement of growth and reduction deleterious Neosiphonia sp. infections is encouraging.
From the issue entitled "Special Issue: Twentieth International Seaweed Symposium".
CitationBorlongan, I. A. G., Tibubos, K. R., Yunque, D. A. T., Hurtado, A. Q., & Critchley, A. T. (2011). Impact of AMPEP on the growth and occurrence of epiphytic Neosiphonia infestation on two varieties of commercially cultivated Kappaphycus alvarezii grown at different depths in the Philippines.
Growth rate; Infestation; Salinity effects; Disease control; Seaweeds; Aquaculture; Epiphytes; Light effects; Powder; Irradiance; Nutrients; Plant extracts; Infection; Testing Procedures; Salinity; Plant growth; Varieties; Growth rate; Algae; Cultivation; Neosiphonia; Kappaphycus; Kappaphycus alvarezii; Philippines; AMPEP; Occurrence; Cultivation depth
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The seasonality and economic feasibility of cultivating Kappaphycus alvarezii in Panagatan Cays, Caluya, Antique, Philippines Vegetative thalli of brown and green Kappaphycus alvarezii were cultivated in Panagatan Cays, Caluya, Antique, Philippines, over 60- and 90-day periods using hanging-long line (HL), fixed off-bottom (FB), and hanging long line–fixed off-bottom (HL–FB) methods to determine the daily growth rate and yield. A completely randomized design experiment with six replicates of 5-m line cultivation rope was used in the study. An economic analysis was prepared to determine the viability of the culture systems used. To determine the effect of strain, culture technique, culture days and culture month on the daily growth rate and yield, a combination of these different factors was treated as a single treatment. Results show that at 60-day culture period, daily growth rate and yield in all techniques were lowest in July–August and highest in January–February. Higher growth rate (2.3–4.2% day−1) and yield (3.6–15.8 fresh weight kg m−1 line−1) were obtained from September to February. Significant differences (P<0.05) in growth rate and yield were determined between culture months. At 90-day culture period, there were no significant differences in growth rate and yield between culture months; however, a significant difference was found between culture techniques. The average production (dry weight kg crop−1) of K. alvarezii when grown at 60-day culture period during lean and peak months using HL, FB and HL–FB techniques ranged from 421 to 3310 kg with HL–FB the highest and FB the lowest. Net income, return on investment (ROI) and payback period were all positive during peak months, but negative values were obtained during lean months. Only seaweed grown on HL technique during the peak months at 90-day culture period showed positive income, ROI and payback period. The seasonality of cultivating K. alvarezii is shown in this present study. This paper further shows the best culture technique to be adopted at certain months of the year to produce the highest yield and income.
Economics of cultivating Kappaphycus alvarezii using the fixed-bottom line and hanging-long line methods in Panagatan Cays, Caluya, Antique, Philippines A socio-economic survey was conducted among the Kappaphycus alvarezii planters of Panagatan Cay, Caluya, Antique, Philippines to determine some social information, farming practices and cost and returns of farming the seaweed. Cultivation is dominated by brown and green morphotypes using the fixed-bottom and hanging-long line methods. Approximately 9.3 t d. wt ha−1 and 7.2 t d. wt ha−1 is produced from fixed-bottom and hanging-long lines methods, respectively, after 60–90 days of culture. The former method requires a working capital and total investment of P7490 and P1870, respectively, compared to the hanging-long line which requires P8455 and P25464, respectively (US$ 1 = P26). A higher total revenue (P139500), net income ((P187895), and return of investment 1002%), but a shorter pay back period (0.10 years) were obtained in fixed-bottom than in hanging-long line. A lower total expenses were incurred in fixed-bottom (P21354) than in hanging-long line (P24566). The farming of K. alvarezii in this area has brought tremendous economic impact to the marginal fishermen.
ArticleAQ Hurtado-Ponce -
Botanica Marina, 1990 - Walter de GruyterPreliminary field culture of Gracilaria using vegetative fragments inserted between braids of ropes suspended vertically inside a floating cage was undertaken to assess the daily growth rate and monthly yield as influenced by three different spacing intervals. Daily growth rate of cuttings at 10 cm intervals ranged from 0.6 to 7.2% with yields of 11 to 415 g m-1 line1, those at 15 cm from 1.4 to 9.1% with yields of 18 to 502 g m-1 line-1, and at 20 cm from 1.7 to 10.5% and with yields of 20 to 379 g m-1 line-1. Both growth and yield were minimum in December at all spacing intervals but maximum in April at 10 and 15 cm and in February at 20 cm. Results of the analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a non-significant interaction between spacing interval and culture month on daily yield of Gracilaria. This indicates that the effect of spacing interval on the daily growth rate and monthly yield was not significantly influenced by the culture month; likewise the effect of culture month did not differ significantly with the intervals used. The main effects, however, of spacing interval and culture month to daily growth rate were significant. Yield was significantly affected by the culture month but not by spacing interval.