Now showing items 1-20 of 169

    • Conference paper

      Abalone aquaculture for stock enhancement and community livelihood project in northern Palawan, Philippines 

      BJ Gonzales - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      One of the interventions to feed the poorest of the poor fisheries sector in the country is the provision of livelihood in the form of mariculture of high value marine species. In the Philippines, livelihood in rural areas is largely linked to resource depletion, hence it is wise not only to provide livelihood to the community but also to encourage them to conserve and enhance the resources. As part of the revised R&D program, the Western Philippines University partnered with NGO and existing projects to embark on a community-based environment-concerned livelihood project, using hatchery bred abalone, although top shell was also considered for stock enhancement. This is in an on-going project thus, preliminary phases such as abalone production and cage-based grow-out as well as subsequent project plans will be discussed. The objectives of this study were to: (a) share the implementing experiences in this project, (b) identify success and failure drivers of the project, (c) explain the conceptual framework for the MPA-based stock enhancement to be used in this project, and (d) give recommendations to improve the implementation and ensure the success of the project.

      The following activities have thus far been conducted: (a) development of criteria for cage micro-site selection; (b) writing of proposal and provision of financial assistance for hatchery juvenile production through a partnership MOA; (c) presentation of site survey results to beneficiaries and stake holders; (d) conduct of trainings on abalone grow out culture to POs; (e) development and improvement of training module; (f) signing of conservation agreement; (g) giving of cage materials and juveniles to people s organizations; (h) on site coaching; and (i) partial monitoring. The next activities include improvement in juvenile production, conduct of researches on abalone nutrition, and development of market and value chain flow analysis. The conceptual framework for community-managed stock enhancement will follow that of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources-ICRMP, of which the stock enhancement project is anchored on the management of marine protected areas or MPAs.

      The steps in all the activities were documented and while the project was in progress, performance of the participants in training were measured, the training module was improved, the training approaches were revised according to needs, and the growth and survival of juvenile abalone were monitored. The problems identified were low production of juveniles, insufficient food for grow-out, political squabbles, social preparation, and delay in implementation schedule. Recommendations to improve or resolve the problems encountered were also presented in this paper.
    • Book chapter

      Adaptation of integrated fish-duck-pig farming system in Leyte 

      G Alcober - In T Bagarinao (Ed.), Research Output of the Fisheries Sector Program, 2007 - Bureau of Agricultural Research, Department of Agriculture
      Adaptation of a fish-duck-pig integrated farming system was conducted at the Busay Freshwater Experimental Farm in Babatngon, Leyte. Genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT) and common carp (at a ratio of 4:1) were stocked at densities of 3/m2 and 6/m2 in four earthen ponds; they were not given any commercial feed. Animal houses were built over the ponds and stocked with mallard ducks at a density of 375/ha, and piglets at 30/ha; they were given commercial feeds daily. After 154 days, the farming system produced a net yield of 1,685 kg fish/ha at a stocking density of 3/m2 and 2,808 kg/ha at 6/m2. Since water quality was not adversely affected, the higher stocking density of 6/m2 is a viable option. This farming system can be further improved and refined for better production and higher incomes.
    • Conference paper

      Advances in diagnosis and management of shrimp virus diseases in the Americas 

      DV Lightner - In Y Inui & ER Cruz-Lacierda (Eds.), Disease Control in Fish and Shrimp Aquaculture in Southeast Asia - Diagnosis and Husbandry Techniques: Proceedings … Aquaculture in Southeast Asia - Diagnosis and Husbandry Techniques, 4-6 December 2001, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The most important diseases of cultured penaeid shrimp, in terms of economic impact, in Asia, the Indo-Pacific, and the Americas, have infectious etiologies. Although diseases with bacterial, fungal, and parasitic etiologies are also important, certain virus-caused diseases stand out as the most significant. The pandemics due to the penaeid viruses WSSV, TSV, YHV, and IHHNV have collectively cost the penaeid shrimp industry billions of dollars in lost crops, jobs, and export revenue. Although not as sudden nor as catastrophic in their onset and course, certain bacterial, fungal, and parasitic diseases of shrimp have also been responsible for very significant production losses, and the relative importance of many of these diseases should not be discounted.

      The social and economic impacts of the pandemics caused by WSSV and TSV have been especially profound in the Americas, and in the wake of these viral pandemics the shrimp culture industry has sought ways to restore the industry’s levels of production to the “pre-virus” years. Central to improving disease) prevention and management strategies is the incorporation of the concepts of biosecurity into shrimp farm design and operational strategies. Disease management in shrimp aquaculture is an important component to biosecurity of farms and to the sustainability of individual farms, shrimp farming countries, or entire geographic regions. The first step in disease management requires the availability of accurate and reliable diagnostic methods and knowledge of the biology of the diseases of concern. The recognition of the need for biosecurity and disease management in the Americas is reflected in the recent proliferation of shrimp disease diagnostic laboratories in the Americas. Where there were only a handful of shrimp disease diagnostic laboratories a decade ago, there are 40 or more such laboratories serving the industry today.

      Diagnostic methods may be applied to determining the cause of disease(s) that are adversely affecting the culture performance or survival of farmed shrimp stocks or they may be used for surveillance purposes to screen for the presence of specific pathogens in otherwise healthy shrimp for the purpose of disease control. As diagnostic methods have improved and become more widely available, the interest in culturing specific pathogen-free (SPF) shrimp stocks in biosecure facilities has increased markedly in many regions in the Americas. The methods being used in shrimp disease diagnostic laboratories in the Americas were recently surveyed. Of the 40 laboratories contacted, 27 responded to the survey. Approximately 75% of the labs responding to the survey provide diagnostic services using both molecular (PCR, RT-PCR and gene probes) and classical (routine histology and microbiology) methods, while nearly all (93%) of the diagnostic labs offer diagnostic testing and screening services based on molecular methods (i.e. assays with gene probes and PCR/RT-PCR).
    • Book chapter

      Agricultural run-off and pollution in Imbang River, Negros Occidental 

      GA Gonzales - In T Bagarinao (Ed.), Research Output of the Fisheries Sector Program, 2007 - Bureau of Agricultural Research, Department of Agriculture
      This study determined the concentration of key pollutants carried by agricultural run-off from the drainage area of Imbang River, Negros Occidental over a two-year period. The quantities loaded into the river were estimated to assess the contribution of agriculture to the degradation of the river. Agricultural production in sugarcane and rice plantations in the area relied on chemicals to control pests and enhance production. Run-off from agricultural land contained an average 0.2 ppm phosphate, 0.2 ppm ammonia, 0.02 ppm nitrite, and 1.7 ppm nitrate from fertilizer inputs and other sources. The run-off also had 7.4 ppm biochemical oxygen demand, 465 ppm total solids, 296 ppm total suspended solids, 0.4 ppm settleable solids, plus traces of organochlorine pesticides. The concentrations of all these potential pollutants were not alarming or dangerous, although on occasion, some exceeded the tolerable limits. However, increasing reliance on fertilizers often leads to intensified use and related problems. Likewise, the continuing use of chemicals to control field pests is of serious concern given that residues are easily carried by run-off to the nearest waterway and passed on and magnified through the food chain. The health of farm workers who routinely handle these products is at risk. Apart from commercial fertilizers, farm lands received organic wastes from domestic and industrial sources. Most farmers maintained farm animals such as carabaos, goats, and sheep that were allowed to graze on the fields after crops had been harvested. Grazing animals frequently left surface deposits of manure. Some farmers on occasion used sugar mill wastes as fertilizers and road fillers in the haciendas. Moreover, household wastes including human excreta were commonly disposed on nearby fields. The contributions of animal and human wastes to the total load of nutrients could be substantial but difficult to quantify given the manner of production and the varying composition of the wastes. Indeed, agricultural run-off transports non-point pollutants from so many poorly defined sources.
    • Book chapter

      Appendices: Diseases in farmed mud crabs Scylla spp. 

      CR Lavilla-Pitogo & LD de la Peña (Eds.) - In CR Lavilla-Pitogo & LD de la Peña (Eds.), Diseases in farmed mud crabs Scylla spp. : diagnosis, prevention, and control, 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • Conference paper

      Application of DNA-based markers in stock enhancement programs 

      MRR Romana-Eguia - In JH Primavera, ET Quinitio & MR Eguia (Eds.), Proceedings of the Regional Technical Consultation on Stock Enhancement for Threatened Species of International Concern, Iloilo City, Philippines, 13-15 July 2005, 2006 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Aquaculture and fisheries management require tools for identifying individuals or groups of aquatic organisms for the purpose of monitoring performance (growth, survival and behavior) and stock structure. In aquaculture research, commercially important traits of tagged individuals are assessed to generate supportive data for selective breeding, genetic improvement and commercial-scale fish farming. Fisheries management employs identification systems for the evaluation of stock abundance, population dynamics and documentation of wild and hatchery-bred stocks. Stock structure analysis is useful in the planning and implementation of sound stock management and more importantly, in stock enhancement programs. Blankenship and Leber (1995) underscored the inclusion of tagging/marking strategies for released hatchery stocks in the guidelines for responsible marine stock enhancement. Identifying and keeping track of introduced stocks in release habitats allows an assessment of their adaptability in the wild (Allendorf et al., 1988) and the success of the reseeding and/or restocking effort. Although often used interchangeably, the terms ‘tags’ and ‘markers’ differ by definition. Tags are artificial or synthetic materials that are attached to the aquatic organism to allow individual or group identification while markers are traits or characters either applied or inherent to the organism (Thorsteinsson, 2002). Tags/markers are essential in evaluating resource distribution patterns, behavior, migration and movement of stocks, dynamics of exploited aquatic populations and evolutionary processes, all of which comprise baseline information for any stock management, enhancement and conservation program in aquaculture and fisheries (Allendorf et al 1988, Mulvey et al., 1998).
    • Conference paper

      Application of the United States Soybean Export Council program's soy-optimized floating feeds and low volume, high density cage aquaculture technologies 

      LLL Manalac, M Cremer & HP Lan - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The United States Soybean Export Council s (USSEC) Soy-In-Aquaculture (SIA) project in the Philippines introduced the Low Volume High Density (LVHD) cage culture production methodology in 2003. The aim of this technology is to maximize farmers profit, improve productivity, reduce feed conversion ratios (FCR) and limit environmental degradation. The Philippine fish farmers were very conservative and hesitant about adopting the USSEC SIA Low Volume High Density (LVHD) cage culture technology, particularly the new feeding techniques using extruded floating feeds. This conservative attitude was highlighted with different projects using Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), milkfish (Chanos chanos) and snubnose pompano (Trachinotus blochii) in USSEC SIA LVHD cage feeding demonstrations conducted in different commercial farms in the Philippines.
    • Conference paper

      AquaHealth Online: A new learning environment for capacity building in aquatic animal health 

      CR Lavilla-Pitogo & PL Torres Jr. - In CR Lavilla-Pitogo & K Nagasawa (Eds.), Transboundary Fish Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training. Proceedings of … Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training, Manila, Philippines, 23-24 June 2004, 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Due to significant requirement of trained personnel in Fish Health Management, the Aquaculture Department of the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC/AQD) offered 14 sessions of face-to-face (F2F) training (1988-2002) at its station in Iloilo. However, shrinking fellowship and travel funds necessitated a shift in training paradigm. Thus, transformation of teaching materials used in F2F trainings resulted to AquaHealth Online, a team developed and electronically delivered course on Health Management in Aquaculture. The general objective of the course transformation was to train a large pool of geographically dispersed participants at minimum cost, and this paper reports on the experience earned in course development, delivery and outcome. To enable Fish Health specialists to develop materials and skills to deliver courses for the online environment, SEAFDEC/AQD collaborated with the University of the Philippines Open University to help adapt, enhance, and reformulate materials in the F2F course for online delivery. The specialists underwent hours of training in "techno-pedagogy", or ways of transforming teaching activities into formats that could be understood even in our absence. The primary learning resource is a CD-ROM that provides interactive information with self-assessment questions. The course covers 12 modules in 4 units: I. Introduction to Fish Health Management; II. Infectious Diseases of Fish and Crustaceans; III. Non-Infectious Diseases; and IV. Disease Diagnosis, Prevention and Control. Learning enhancement and discussion occurs through internet-based Discussion Boards (DBs) presided over by module specialists. The DBs serve as media for asynchronous discussions and makes a permanent record of lessons learned. When first offered in 2002, AquaHealth Online had 25 enrollees from 10 countries. In 2003, there were 17 participants from 8 countries. Participants were led to "just-in" relevant information and encouraged to submit assignments from internet resources. This course is an example that a state-of-the-art online course can be as effective as F2F training.
    • Conference paper

      ASEAN-SEAFDEC directives related to species of international concern 

      S Vichitlekarn - In JH Primavera, ET Quinitio & MR Eguia (Eds.), Proceedings of the Regional Technical Consultation on Stock Enhancement for Threatened Species of International Concern, Iloilo City, Philippines, 13-15 July 2005, 2006 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      To achieve sustainable fisheries for food security in the ASEAN region, the Resolution (RES) and Plan of Action (POA) urge the Member Countries to rectify their fisheries practices through improvement of existing fisheries management policy, framework and practices as well as implementation of the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries (CCRF), RES and POA. Improvement of fisheries management includes the gradual introduction of decentralized rights-based fisheries and co-management systems, regulation/control of fishing activities, protection/rehabilitation of important aquatic resource habitats, resource/stock enhancement, and so on. In addition, the RES and POA also highlight the need to enhance partnership among Member Countries in the region through the formulation of common positions as well as to increase their participation and involvement in international fora (FAO, CITES, etc.) to safeguard and promote ASEAN interests particularly on issues of international concern. In line with the above general directives, especially in relation to stock enhancement of species under international concern, senior fisheries officials of ASEAN and SEAFDEC have urged proactive approaches in tackling the issues and gave the following directives: 1) To increase support to national initiatives and to facilitate regional cooperation on stock enhancement including identification of concerned species and their status, interaction between concerned species and fishing, and integrated approach and community involvement in management and conservation of aquatic resources; 2) To identify issues/species of international concern and conduct review on status of the issues/species as basis for formulation of fisheries policy as well as common positions among the Member Countries in international fora; 3) To compile information on status and initiatives related to management and conservation of aquatic resources and to disseminate them in appropriate international fora to enhance awareness of the regional situation and seriousness of the issues; 4) To promote appropriate inter-agency coordination on the issues at national and regional levels, and 5) To promote involvement of national fisheries agencies in national/regional/international fora/mechanisms related to utilization and management of aquatic resources.
    • Book chapter

      Assessment of grouper resources around Zamboanga City and Basilan, Philippines 

      NT Lasola, RA Samson & PB Domingo - In T Bagarinao (Ed.), Research Output of the Fisheries Sector Program, 2007 - Bureau of Agricultural Research, Department of Agriculture
      A total of 2,643 kg of groupers were collected from six markets (96% of the biomass) and from prescribed fish traps in three fishing grounds (106 kg, 4%) around Zamboanga City and Basilan from November 1993 to October 1994. The collection included 26 species in seven genera: Aethaloperca, Cephalopholis, Cromileptis, Epinephelus, Niphon, Plectropomus, and Variola. The three species of highest biomass were Epinephelus fasciatus (26%), Cephalopholis sonnerati (14%) and Cromileptis altivelis (13%). The least biomass was contributed by Epinephelus sexfasciatus (0.1%), Plectropomus areolatus (0.1%), and Cephalopholis sexmaculatus (0.3%). Grouper biomass was lower from November to April and greater from May to October. Groupers caught by the prescribed fish traps were mostly Epinephelus merra (50% of the total). The highest catch of grouper was 0.8 kg/fish trap around Sta. Cruz Island in July, and the highest catch of all demersal fishes was 7 kg/trap around Malamawi Island in September. On average, groupers made up less than 10% of the monthly catch of fish traps. The groupers collected from the markets and from the fish traps averaged 28 cm in total length— all young juveniles. Cromileptes altivelis (average 38 cm) were the largest individuals and Plectropomus spp. (36 cm) similarly so. The largest C. altivelis (1.5 kg) was caught in December and the smallest (0.8 kg) in April and August. The various Cephalopholis species averaged 31 cm, and the various Epinephelus species were smallest at 26 cm. Groupers were largest in December and smallest between January and May. Length-weight equations were derived for seven grouper species. Of the 78 grouper stomachs that were dissected, 52 were empty and 26 contained food, mainly crabs, anchovies, hermit crabs, soldierfish, squids, and shrimps. Groupers with mature and ripe varies had from 3,000 to 11,000 eggs per gram ovary.
    • Conference paper

      Assessment of humphead wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus), spawning aggregations and declaration of marine protected area as strategy for enhancement of wild stocks 

      FG Romero & AS Injaki - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Humphead wrasse, known as the Napoleon fish (Cheilinus undulatus), is the largest living member of the family Labridae. It is slow growing but can grow to a maximum size exceeding 2 m and 190 kg. This species was the first commercially important coral reef food fish to be listed in the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) Appendix II in 2004 because of its vulnerable status and the ongoing threat to its conservation from international trade. Like many coral reef fishes, the humphead wrasse, Cheilinus undulatus, aggregate in reef areas when they spawn and this spawning behaviour makes them highly vulnerable to overfishing. Assessment of the spawning aggregations of this species was conducted in the municipalities of Sibutu and Sitangkai in the province of Tawi-Tawi, Philippines. Key informant interviews (KII) with fishermen, mariculturists, and other stakeholders and focus group discussions (FGD) with local government leaders, Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Management (FARMC) members, mariculturists, and exporters were conducted. Guided by the results of these KII and FGDs, underwater visual census of mameng (local common name for Napoleon wrasse) populations (juvenile and mature) were conducted to document spawning aggregation sites. Since there was no photo-documentation of actual spawning aggregations of mameng in the reef areas, indirect measures were used. Result of the KII and FGD indicated that the Baligtang Reef in Sipangkot and Tando Owak are major sources of spawners. Anecdotal accounts of Bajau fishermen showed that Dungun Dungon, Baligtang reef, Tando Owak and Tugalan are traditional fishing grounds for mameng spawning aggregations. From the length-frequency analysis of mameng caught by hook and line and fish pot in the Baligtang Reef in Sipangkot, the estimated length at maturity of this species was found to be 25-35 cm. There were 134 individuals caught within this size range so they are considered potential spawners. Another indirect proof used was the underwater documentation of juvenile humphead wrasse which were regularly observed and photographed in association with seagrass beds and branching coral reefs in Baligtang Reef in Sipangkot, Sitangkai. Gonadal study also indicated that the mameng caught in this area had mature and ripe gonads but the number of mature fish depends on the season. These were the basis of declaring Spawning Aggregation Sites in Tando Owak and Dungun Dungun in Sibutu and Baligtang Reef, Sipangkot and Tugalan in Sitangkai. These were declared as marine protected areas by ordinance of the municipal Sangguniang Bayan of the two municipalities. Management and enforcement plans have been developed and Bantay Dagat have been trained to protect the spawning aggregations and this strategy aims to protect the wild stocks of humphead wrasse. Protecting the spawners would ensure that there would be enough recruits, prevent recruitment overfishing and enhance the wild stocks.
    • Conference paper

      Background and objectives of the Meeting on Current Status of Transboundary Fish Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurrence, Surveillance, Research and Training 

      K Nagasawa - In CR Lavilla-Pitogo & K Nagasawa (Eds.), Transboundary Fish Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training. Proceedings of … Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training, Manila, Philippines, 23-24 June 2004, 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • Book chapter

      Bacteria and toxin isolated from the dinoflagellate Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum and production of monoclonal antibodies and diagnostic kits to monitor red tide and toxic mussels 

      TM Espino, RM Aspiras, NG Sabino, E Parreño, RL Macasadia & MLF del Mundo - In T Bagarinao (Ed.), Research Output of the Fisheries Sector Program, 2007 - Bureau of Agricultural Research, Department of Agriculture
      Six bacterial isolates obtained from the red tide dinoflagellate Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum were found to be toxic. The most toxic isolate MM-11 was cultured, characterized, and identified to be Micrococcus luteus. MM-11 and M. luteus had similar DNA bands on agarose gel, and contained 70.0–75.5% mole G+C. Several Micrococcus species were isolated from pure culture and field samples of Pyrodinium and from red tide affected mussels. MM-11 and the other Micrococcus isolates tested positive for saxitoxin. MM-11 was grown on seawater agar; peak cell density of 1.36 x 1010 cells/ml occurred after 3 days of incubation. Toxin production was directly proportional to cell density. The crude toxin from the optimized culture of MM-11 resulted in death of mice in only 1.8–2.4 min, equivalent to a toxicity of 5.9–13.4 mouse units. MM-11 was inoculated into healthy mussels and yielded bacterial isolates that had characteristics of MM-11, and extracts of toxin similar to MM-11 toxin. Mice injected with extracts from the inoculated mussels showed symptoms of paralytic shellfish poisoning (dyspnea 12–15 min after injection), but did not die. Partially purified extracts from red tide affected mussels killed mice in 3.4 min, equivalent to a toxicity of 3.4 mouse units. Addition of 5, 25 and 50% coconut milk to this toxin extract reduced the toxicity to only 34%, 29%, and 25% of that without coconut milk. The ELISA test similarly showed reduction of saxitoxin concentration from 4.78 g toxin/g at 5% added coconut milk to 3.62 g toxin/g at 50% added coconut milk.

      PSP toxins were extracted from bacteria and red tide affected mussels. The 24 purified extracts of MM-11 toxin were shown by mouse bioassay to have concentrations from 0.6 to 71.6 μg toxin/g bacteria. Green mussels sampled from Bataan and Zambales during incidence of red tides from 1994 to 1998 contained lower amounts of toxin per unit weight than the bacterial extracts. Analysis of the MM-11 toxin by HPLC-fluorometry showed two fractions similar to those of standard gonyautoxin 1 and gonyautoxin 3.
    • Book chapter

      Bacterial diseases 

      EA Tendencia & CR Lavilla-Pitogo - In K Nagasawa & ER Cruz-Lacierda (Eds.), Diseases of cultured groupers, 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Bacteria are very common in the aquatic environment. Most bacterial disease agents are part of the normal flora of the water. They cause disease only when the fish are stressed due to poor environmental conditions, inadequate diet and poor husbandry techniques.

      This chapter focuses on the most common bacterial diseases of groupers.
    • Book chapter

      Bacterial isolation, identification and storage 

      L Ruangpan & EA Tendencia - In Laboratory manual of standardized methods for antimicrobial sensitivity tests for bacteria isolated from aquatic animals and environment, 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Bacterial isolation, purification and identification are the first steps to bacteriological studies. Isolation is done to obtain pure bacterial cultures. Bacteria are usually isolated from fish kidney and spleen; and from the hepatopancreas, lymphoid organ and muscles of shrimp. These tissues are monitor organs that usually harbor the disease-causing bacteria during infection.
    • Book chapter

      Bacterial loads in hatcheries and virulence of Vibrio spp. to larvae of the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon 

      JL Torres - In T Bagarinao (Ed.), Research Output of the Fisheries Sector Program, 2007 - Bureau of Agricultural Research, Department of Agriculture
      Shrimp hatcheries are high-density systems and are prone to diseases. A small-scale and a large-scale hatchery for the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon in Iloilo, Philippines were monitored over two months for water quality and shrimp survival. Water quality (water temperature, pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and specific gravity) was not significantly different between the two hatcheries. However, the small hatchery seemed to favor survival of eggs to early postlarval stages, whereas the large hatchery favored the survival of late postlarvae. The normal microflora and bacterial loads of tiger shrimp eggs, larvae, postlarvae, and rearing water were determined to identify the dominant bacteria and potential pathogens. Shrimp eggs harbored the lowest heterotrophic bacterial counts. The counts increased from the nauplii to the mysis stages, decreased during the mysis stage, and then gradually increased in the older larvae. Bacterial loads in the rearing water reflected those in raw sea water and reservoir-aged sea water. Vibrio, Pseudomonas, and Aeromonas were not detected in eggs but were found in postlarvae. Ubiquitous in sea water, these bacteria increased with the build-up of organic matter. The bacterial load in the water adversely affected larval survival. Forty bacterial strains were isolated from tiger shrimp eggs, larvae, postlarvae, from the feeds, and from the rearing water. These were tested for biochemical characteristics and segregated into eight groups or genera. Six genera were found in the mysis and five genera in the postlarvae. The Vibrio species were dominant. Only Escherichia spp. were present in feeds, whereas five genera were present in the rearing water. Only Vibrio and Pseudomonas were present in both larvae and water. Moraxella, Aeromonas, and Klebsiella were found in larvae but not in rearing water. Micrococcus and coryneforms were found only in rearing water. Four Vibrio isolates were tested for virulence against shrimp postlarvae at inoculation densities of 102 and 107 cfu/ml. The four Vibrio species caused mortality of postlarvae, and more at the higher inoculation density. The most virulent was Vibrio anguillarum—30% of postlarvae died after 24 h exposure to a bacterial density of 102 cfu/ml, and all larvae died after 48 h at 107 cfu/ml. Shrimp hatcheries must have protocols for hygiene and sanitation and for disease prevention and control.
    • Book

      Bangus fry resource assessment in the Philippines 

      M Ahmed, GA Magnayon-Umali, RA Valmonte-Santos, J Toledo, N Lopez & F Torres Jr. - 2001 - ICLARM - The World Fish Center
      Series: ICLARM Technical Report; 58
      Bangus or milkfish is the national fish of Philippine. Bangus culture is traditionally based on fry collected from the wild. Due to growing demand for fry the bangus industry. The Philippines Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR), the Philippine Council of Aquatic and Marine Research and Development (PCAMRD), the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Centre (SEFDEC) and ICLARM embarked of the conditions prevailing in the milkfish fry sector, project workshop was held in 1999. The present report is the outcome of workshop. Report highlights on the issues milkfish production, fry production in hatcheries, fry gathering activities, marketing issues, management of fry gathering grounds and its marketing and the related policy issues.
    • Conference paper

      BFAR-CHED Philippine National Aquasilviculture Program (PNAP) in Bataan 

      RC Flores, FE Tungol, AS Antonio, ED Medairos & JM Salas - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Under the Philippine Aquasilviculture Program, the Bataan Peninsula State University (BSPU) rehabilitated denuded mangrove resources, established aquasilviculture technology demonstration projects as a livelihood option for fisherfolks (while caring for the mangroves they had planted) and established community-based multi-species hatcheries to increase endemic fish species in the area.

      The BPSU was able to (a) plant 183, 300 mangrove seedlings where 85.96% survival was noted a year after, (b) establish 16 units aquasilviculture projects for the livelihood of the beneficiaries (planting that earned the beneficiaries P1,338, 731.90); and (c) establish community-based multispecies hatcheries that already produced an estimated 1,030,502,400 eggs of various fish species, thus increasing the wild fishery resource in the area.

      The program is expected to bear potential impacts on our environment and to the lives of the marginalized people of our community through the collaborative efforts of the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR), the Commission on Higher Education (CHED), BPSU, Local Government Units (LGUs) and the fisherfolks.
    • Conference paper

      Biology and status of aquaculture for giant clams (Tridacnidae) in the Ryukyu Islands, southern Japan 

      K Iwai, K Kiso & H Kubo - In JH Primavera, ET Quinitio & MR Eguia (Eds.), Proceedings of the Regional Technical Consultation on Stock Enhancement for Threatened Species of International Concern, Iloilo City, Philippines, 13-15 July 2005, 2006 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The Ryukyu Islands consist of many islands located between Kyushu in mainland Japan and Taiwan. The islands in the south-western area of the Ryukyu Islands belong to the Okinawa Prefecture. The Ryukyu Islands are strongly affected by the Kuroshio Current and are renowned for their coral reefs with high diversity of tropical and subtropical species. Giant clams traditionally have been utilized as fisheries resources for a long time in this area. According to fisheries statistics, catches of Tridacna crocea in Okinawa have decreased drastically during the last 30 years and currently are less than one tenth of previous catches. Fishing can easily deplete stocks of giant clams because the clams inhabit shallow waters and take at least three years to attain sexual maturity. Techniques for the mass seed production and aquaculture of three species (T. crocea, T. squamosa, and T. derasa) were established in Okinawa. Four hundred thousand seeds of giant clams of 8 mm shell length (SL) are supplied to fishermen for use in aquaculture or stock enhancement every year. This paper will review the (1) biology of giant clams, (2) present status of aquaculture of giant clams in Okinawa, and (3) other studies on giant clams in southern Japan.
    • Book chapter

      Changes in the fish diversity and abundance on a heavily fished fringing reef on Santiago Island, Pangasinan, Philippines 

      JW McManus, CL Nañola Jr., RB Reyes Jr. & KN Kesner - In TU Bagarinao (Ed.), Research Output of the Fisheries Sector Program, 2007 - Bureau of Agricultural Research, Department of Agriculture
      Fish assemblages on the reef slope, reef flat, and seagrass beds on Santiago Island were sampled over 18 months in 1992-1993 as part of a 6-year reef monitoring project started in 1986. Abundance and species diversity were analyzed by a variety of indices, and by multi-dimensional scaling and correlated ordered similarity matrix. The monitoring showed a distinct shift in the reef slope fish composition during the first half of 1988. Of the 100 most abundant species, 21 species showed significant reductions in abundance, and 20 species showed significant increases. Differences were not due to depth preference or feeding habits. Fishing pressure was apparently responsible for declines in Cheilinus trilobatus, Acanthurus nigricauda, and Naso literatus, as well as a general decline in the family Acanthuridae (surgeonfishes). However, analysis of site preferences of the decreasing species and the increasing species indicated a shift in community composition from those species preferring more coral cover to those preferring more sand, rock, and possibly Sargassum seaweed. Site preferences were determined from benthic life form transects done in 1992. Of 35 significantly changing species for which habitat data was obtained, 24 fit the hypothesis of habitat change. This supports the proposition from previous studies that the major cause of change in the reef slope fish community was the destructive fishing activity associated with Malthusian overfishing. Similar analyses of the fish assemblages on the reef flat and on the seagrass beds showed seasonal effects, particularly in the latter, but no strong shift comparable to that of the reef slope. These latter areas had been subjected to greater fishing pressure for a longer period.

      Reef fish populations such as those in Bolinao tend to be highly resilient provided the larval supply is not adversely affected. However, subtle changes in the cover of coral on a reef can lead to major changes in the composition of the fish community. Coral cover is being widely diminished on Philippine reefs, and substantial changes in the fish communities may be anticipated, even on reefs with initially low coral cover. These changes may affect the utility and immediate value of the fish to local fishers and the market systems they supply. It is of great urgency to stop destructive fishing practices such as blasting and use of cyanide, and to develop anchoring methods that are minimally destructive.

      There is a strong predictive relation between the numbers of fish (abundance) in an area and the numbers of species (biodiversity) they include. As fish populations decline due to destructive fishing, or highly concentrated non-destructive fishing, the local species richness may be expected to decline. This decline may have serious short-term social and economic consequences, as well as far-reaching long-term environmental effects. Efforts to reduce overfishing must be intensified—though reduction of birth rate, provision of alternative livelihoods, and curbing of destructive fishing — in order to prevent a very distressing future for the Philippine marine environment and the people it supports.