Level and percentage recovery of resistance to oxytetracycline and oxolinic acid of bacteria from shrimp ponds
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The bacterial level of the water, sediment and cultured shrimp (Penaeus monodon) from different ponds were determined using a general medium, a presumptive Vibrio medium and a presumptive Pseudomonas–Aeromonas medium. Samples were taken from ponds that had not used any antimicrobial, ponds that had previously used and also ponds that were currently using oxolinic acid (OXA). The bacterial level in the sediment was higher than in the water using all three media. More bacteria existed in the pond system than in the receiving environment. Shrimp hepatopancreas harbored more bacteria than the lymphoid organ. The Vibrio density of the pond and bacterial levels in the shrimp were correlated with the use of the antimicrobial. The Vibrio level of the pond samples and microbial density of shrimps were higher from ponds that had not used any antimicrobials. The percentage recoveries of resistance to oxytetracycline (OTC) and OXA in bacteria from shrimp ponds and cultured shrimps were also determined using Zobell's marine agar, Pseudomonas–Aeromonas selective agar and thiosulfate citrate bile sucrose agar (TCBS) with the addition of either 25 μg/ml OTC or 25 μg/ml OXA. Presumptive Vibrio bacteria and other bacterial taxa recovered from the pond/receiving water/sediment from all three sites showed some degree of resistance to OTC and OXA. However, a higher percentage recovery of strains resistant to OTC than to OXA was observed among the presumptive vibrios and other bacterial taxa. Pseudomonas and Aeromonas bacteria were more resistant to OXA compared with the vibrios. All bacterial taxa resistant to OTC were more readily recovered from the water samples than from the sediment samples. In general, between the samples from the pond and from the receiving environment, a higher percentage of resistant strains was observed in the latter. Higher percentage recovery of bacteria resistant to OXA was observed in shrimp from ponds currently using OXA than those from ponds that had not used any or those that had previously used them. The results of the present study showed that the percentage recovery of resistance reflected the pattern of antimicrobial use.
CitationTendencia, E. A., & dela Peña, L. D. (2002). Level and percentage recovery of resistance to oxytetracycline and oxolinic acid of bacteria from shrimp ponds.
Agar; Antibiotics; Bacterial diseases; Culture effects; Culture media; Drug resistance; Microbiological culture; Microorganisms; Pathogenic bacteria; Ponds; Shrimp culture; Bacteria; Aeromonas; Penaeus monodon; Pseudomonas; Vibrio; Oxytetracycline; Oxolinic acid; Antimicrobial resistance; Vibrio spp.
The authors wish to thank SEAFDEC AQD for funding the study under study code FH 01 C97T; the Fish Health Section support staff—Helen Marcial, Mila Paner, Maila Sobejano and Remia Traviña; and the prawn farmers—Atty. Eduardo Azarraga, Mr. Emil Bautista, Mr. Joven Chavez, Mr. Stephen Lim, Dr. Manuel Lim and Mr. Ivan Yaptangco.
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Induction of immunity and resistance to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) by synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide and bacterial DNA EC Amar & JP Faisan Jr. -
Philippine Agricultural Scientist, 2012 - University of the Philippines Los BañosShrimps like all invertebrates are believed to lack true adaptive immunity but recent evidence indicate that they can be protected against pathogenic organisms by priming their immune system with immunostimulatory substances. Here, we describe results of investigation aimed to strengthen shrimp immunity as a preventive strategy against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) with and without Cytosine-Guanine (CpG) motifs, and Vibrio harveyi genomic DNA (VHD) were administered by intramuscular injection and shrimp responses were assessed by ex vivo assays and experimental infection trials. Results showed that CpG ODN significantly increased ex-vivo immunity indices such as total hemocyte count (THC), plasma agglutination titer (PAT) and hemocyte lysate agglutination titer (HLAT). VHD significantly increased immune indices such as THC, plasma total protein (PTP) and HLAT. Reverse (GpC) motifs increased THC only. At a lower viral challenge dose, both CpG and GpC motifs, and VHD, were able to reduce shrimp mortality significantly but only CpG and VHD did so at a higher challenge dose. Strengthening shrimp immunity by the use of immunostimulatory nucleotides and bacterial genomic DNA could be a feasible preventive approach in the management of WSSV infections in shrimp.
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