Integration of finfish in shrimp (Penaeus monodon) culture: an effective disease prevention strategy
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A farm trial on integration of finfish (i.e., tilapia) in shrimp (Penaeus monodon) culture was conducted in Negros Occidental, Philippines to prevent luminous vibriosis in shrimp. The farm engaged in shrimp monoculture from 1987 to 1995. However, the prevailing luminous vibriosis outbreaks that started in 1994 prompted the farm operator to shift to tilapia culture in 1995-1996. The farm resumed shrimp operations in 1996 but by this time tilapia had already been integrated in the culture system. This paper reports on the results of the trial for 1999 using three ponds (ponds 7, 9, 29). These ponds had previously been used for tilapia culture for two years. During shrimp culture, they drew water from reservoirs stocked with tilapia and within the shrimp ponds tilapia are also stocked inside cages. This technology integrates crop rotation, biological pretreatment and polyculture into one system. During the culture period the chemical and bacteriological quality of soil, water and shrimp were monitored. Water quality parameters were within normal ranges for shrimp culture. Luminous bacterial counts in water and shrimp were consistently below 10 colony forming units (cfu)/ml and 103 cfu/hepatopancreas (hp), respectively. These levels are below threshold levels associated with luminous vibriosis outbreaks. With a stocking density of 19.43 shrimp postlarvae (PL)/m2, pond 7 yielded 2,605 kg shrimp/ha with an estimated survival of 35.65% after 109 days of culture (DOC). With a stocking density of 18.69 PL/ m2, pond 9 yielded 5,472 kg shrimp/ha with survival of 100% after 148 DOC. With a stocking density of 19.33 PL/m2, Pond 29 yielded 5,702 kg shrimp/ha with survival of 82.66% after 151 DOC. The relatively low production in pond 7 can be attributed to the inferior quality of the batch of stocked shrimp PL that already had a low survival of 50% at DOC 30. Comparing the production performance from this present trial with that of this and other farms before the 1994 outbreaks, these good results cannot simply be attributed to chance despite of the lack of control in this farm trial. These results are consistent with the results of a previous trial of the same farm, the ongoing verification trials in Negros Occidental, and the observations of many farmers in other parts of the country on the potential of shrimp-finfish integration in preventing luminous vibriosis in shrimp.
Paclibare, J. O., Usero, R. C., Somga, J. R., & Visitacion, R. N. (2002). Integration of finfish in shrimp (Penaeus monodon) culture: an effective disease prevention strategy. In Y. Inui & E. R. Cruz-Lacierda (Eds.), Disease Control in Fish and Shrimp Aquaculture in Southeast Asia - Diagnosis and Husbandry Techniques: Proceedings of the SEAFDEC-OIE Seminar-Workshop on Disease Control in Fish and Shrimp Aquaculture in Southeast Asia - Diagnosis and Husbandry Techniques, 4-6 December 2001, Iloilo City, Philippines (pp. 151-171). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department.
PublisherAquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
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Book chapterGD Lio-Po & LHS Lim - In PTK Woo, DW Bruno & LHS Lim (Eds.), Diseases and disorders of finfish in cage culture, 2014 - CABI PublishingThis chapter presents the viral, bacterial, pseudofungal and parasitic diseases in cultured warm freshwater fish. Focus is given on the distribution, causative agent, pathology, diagnosis, prevention and control of these diseases.
BookCR Lavilla-Pitogo, GD Lio-Po, ER Cruz-Lacierda, EV Alapide-Tendencia & LD de la Peña - 2000 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
Series: Aquaculture extension manual / SEAFDEC. Aquaculture Department; No. 16The manual provides information on the diseases that affect the 3 major species of shrimps cultured in the Philippines: Penaeus monodon, P. merguiensis and P. indicus. It includes the common name of the disease, causative agent, species affected, stages affected, gross signs, effects on the host and methods of prevention and treatment. This revised edition includes newly discovered diseases. It is hoped that the manual will be of considerable help to shrimp farmers in identifying the disease and lead to prevention or early disease diagnosis and control.
Mortalities of pond-cultured juvenile shrimp, Penaeus monodon, associated with dominance of luminescent vibrios in the rearing environment Severe mortalities due to luminescent vibrios occurred in pond-cultured Penaeus monodon juveniles particularly in the first 45 days of culture. Luminescent vibriosis epizootics led to reduced shrimp production due to mortalities and slow growth of affected stocks. Monitoring of bacterial population in the rearing water of several ponds was conducted from the time the ponds were flooded with water until 60 days of culture to understand the course of infection. Results showed that the occurrence of mortalities was preceded by a shift of the bacterial profile of the rearing water in infected ponds, notably the dominance of luminescent vibrios. Comparison of bacterial load in the rearing water and water source (river or open sea) showed elevated luminescent Vibrio counts in the former at 12 days to 3 weeks after initial entry of water. Histopathology of affected shrimps showed the hepatopancreas as the target organ of infection where severe inflammatory responses in the intertubular sinuses were seen.