Anti-luminous Vibrio factors associated with the ‘green water’ grow-out culture of the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon
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The ability of the “green water” grow-out culture of the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon to prevent outbreaks of Luminous Vibriosis was investigated by screening associated isolates of bacteria, fungi, phytoplankton and fish skin mucus for anti-luminous Vibrio metabolites. Among the 85 bacterial isolates tested, 63 (74%) caused +∼+++ inhibition of the Vibrio harveyi pathogen after 24–48 h co-cultivation. The variation in growth inhibition rates of +, ++, and +++ were demonstrated by 15 (18%), 13 (15%), and 28 (33%) isolates, respectively, 24 h after treatment. Eight bacterial isolates showed consistently sustained maximum inhibition of luminous Vibrio after 24 to 48 h exposure. The majority of these luminous Vibrio inhibiting bacterial isolates were obtained from tilapia mucus and gut. In tests with fungi, 4 of 20 (20%) yeast isolates showed intracellular metabolites inhibitory to luminous Vibrio. Among filamentous fungi, 5 of 45 (11%) isolates yielded intracellular metabolites while 3 of 41 (7%) isolates had extracellular metabolites inhibitory to luminous Vibrio. These fungal isolates were identified as Rhodotorula sp., Saccharomyces sp., Candida sp., Penicillium sp., mycelia sterilia, and two unidentified species. The microalgae, Chaetoceros calcitrans and Nitzchia sp., consistently demonstrated complete inhibition of luminous Vibrio from 24 h and 48 h post exposure, respectively, and during the 7-day experiment. Leptolyngbia sp. caused a 94–100% reduction of the luminous Vibrio population from 104 to 101 cfu/ml 24 h post exposure which was sustained throughout the 10-day observation period. In contrast, the inhibitory effects of Skeletonema costatum on luminous Vibrio was bacteriostatic throughout the 7-day exposure while Nannochlorum sp. did not significantly inhibit luminous Vibrio. The skin mucus of jewel tilapia, Tilapia hornorum, had no resident luminous bacteria and inhibited this bacterial pathogen in 6–48 h, which was proportionate to the 103 and 105 cfu/ml test concentrations of luminous Vibrio. This study provides a scientific explanation that the effectiveness of the “green water” culture of tiger shrimp (P. monodon) in preventing outbreaks of luminous Vibriosis among P. monodon juveniles in grow-out ponds can be attributed to the presence of anti-luminous Vibrio factors in the bacterial, fungal, phytoplankton microbiota and the skin mucus of tilapia associated with this novel technique of shrimp culture.
CitationLio-Po, G. D., Leaño, E. M., Peñaranda, M. M. D., Villa-Franco, A. U., Sombito, C. D., & Guanzon Jr., N. G. (2005). Anti-luminous Vibrio factors associated with the ‘green water’ grow-out culture of the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.
Aquaculture techniques; Bacteriocides; Bioactive compounds; Disease control; Fungi; Inhibitors; Metabolites; Mucus; Pathogenic bacteria; Phytoplankton; Pond culture; Screening; Shrimp culture; Vibriosis; Yeasts; Bacteria; Candida; Chaetoceros calcitrans; Leptolyngbya; Mycelia sterilia; Nannochlorum; Nitzschia; Penaeus monodon; Penicillium; Rhodotorula; Saccharomyces; Skeletonema costatum; Tilapia hornorum; Vibrio harveyi; “Green water” culture; Vibrio; Tiger shrimp
Appreciation is due to SEAFDEC-AQD and the Japanese Trust Fund Fish Disease Project for funding support. We also thank Drs. Yasuo Inui and Kazuya Nagasawa for encouragement and guidance, Dr. Leobert de la Peña for the Vibrio harveyi isolate, Deogracias Reyes, Jr. for the algal cultures, Catherine Lago for assisting in some experiments, and F. Y. Domingo for access to his jewel tilapia.
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ArticleFrom January 1990 to June 1993, 59% of the total juvenile to adult shrimp (Penaeus monodon) submitted for diagnosis at the Fish Health Section of the Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines were diagnosed to have red disease syndrome. Red disease syndrome is characterized by the reddening of the shrimp body. The aetiology of the disease is unknown. This paper reports for the first time the isolation of four Vibrio phenotypes, namely, Vibrio harveyi, V. parahaemolyticus, V. fluuialis and Vibrio sp. from shrimps with red disease. Pathogenicity test shows that injection with V. parahaemolyticus and V. harveyi can produce the characteristic red discoloration in healthy shrimp.
Level and percentage recovery of resistance to oxytetracycline and oxolinic acid of bacteria from shrimp ponds The bacterial level of the water, sediment and cultured shrimp (Penaeus monodon) from different ponds were determined using a general medium, a presumptive Vibrio medium and a presumptive Pseudomonas–Aeromonas medium. Samples were taken from ponds that had not used any antimicrobial, ponds that had previously used and also ponds that were currently using oxolinic acid (OXA). The bacterial level in the sediment was higher than in the water using all three media. More bacteria existed in the pond system than in the receiving environment. Shrimp hepatopancreas harbored more bacteria than the lymphoid organ. The Vibrio density of the pond and bacterial levels in the shrimp were correlated with the use of the antimicrobial. The Vibrio level of the pond samples and microbial density of shrimps were higher from ponds that had not used any antimicrobials. The percentage recoveries of resistance to oxytetracycline (OTC) and OXA in bacteria from shrimp ponds and cultured shrimps were also determined using Zobell's marine agar, Pseudomonas–Aeromonas selective agar and thiosulfate citrate bile sucrose agar (TCBS) with the addition of either 25 μg/ml OTC or 25 μg/ml OXA. Presumptive Vibrio bacteria and other bacterial taxa recovered from the pond/receiving water/sediment from all three sites showed some degree of resistance to OTC and OXA. However, a higher percentage recovery of strains resistant to OTC than to OXA was observed among the presumptive vibrios and other bacterial taxa. Pseudomonas and Aeromonas bacteria were more resistant to OXA compared with the vibrios. All bacterial taxa resistant to OTC were more readily recovered from the water samples than from the sediment samples. In general, between the samples from the pond and from the receiving environment, a higher percentage of resistant strains was observed in the latter. Higher percentage recovery of bacteria resistant to OXA was observed in shrimp from ponds currently using OXA than those from ponds that had not used any or those that had previously used them. The results of the present study showed that the percentage recovery of resistance reflected the pattern of antimicrobial use.
Conference paperMAG Apostol-Albaladejo - In RV Pakingking Jr., EGT de Jesus-Ayson & BO Acosta (Eds.), Addressing Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND) and Other Transboundary Diseases for Improved Aquatic … Diseases for Improved Aquatic Animal Health in Southeast Asia, 22-24 February 2016, Makati City, Philippines, 2016 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterShrimp is the fourth most important aquaculture commodity in the Philippines in terms of production quantity and second in terms of export value. The two species of shrimp being cultivated in the Philippines are the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) and Pacific white shrimp (P. vannamei). Although shrimp production markedly declined in the 1990 s due to luminescent vibriosis and white spot disease caused by Vibrio harveyi and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), respectively, the industry was able to recover due to collaborative and participatory efforts of both the public and private sectors. Recovery programs focused on improving culture technologies, prevention and control of disease introduction and outbreaks and environmental enhancement. However, serious outbreaks of an emerging transboundary disease named acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) caused by unique strains of V. parahaemolyticus have recently caused heavy economic losses among shrimps growers in some major shrimp producing provinces in the country, thereby threatening production growth and export expansion of the Philippine shrimp industry. This paper presents the status of AHPND in cultured penaeids and activities of the National Shrimp Health Management Program (NSHMP) of the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) on importation policies, disease surveillance, monitoring and reporting, disease diagnosis, and preventive and control measures against AHPND and other transboundary diseases of cultured penaeids in the Philippines.