Fish behaviour and aquaculture
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Research in the application of fundamental concepts of fish behaviour to aquaculture has intensified recently and this chapter further elucidates fish sensory systems and functions and their involvement in the success or failure of hatchery and farm operations. Most marine fishes hatch with rudimentary sense organs that are elaborated by the time of first feeding and further improved with growth; thus, hatcheries must have the appropriate food, light and water currents for proper larval development. In grow-out farms, the ambient conditions must be at optimum or tolerable levels for the fish stock and the diets must have the right sensory characteristics to stimulate efficient feeding. Stressors for fish sensory systems include crowding, turbidity, underwater noise, chemotherapeutants, extreme pH, gas supersaturation and infection. High-density farms are stressful because the fish can sense, but cannot escape from, unfavourable conditions. Monitoring fish behaviour provides early warning of stress and disease and helps avert mortality and financial losses in aquaculture.
Kawamura, G., Bagarinao, T. U., & Seng, L. L. (2015). Fish behaviour and aquaculture. In S. Mustafa & R. Shapawi (Eds.), Aquaculture Ecosystems: Adaptability and Sustainability (pp. 68–106). Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
PublisherJohn Wiley & Sons, Ltd
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ArticleJH Primavera -
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 1997 - ElsevierThe effect of habitat structure and substratum on predation of the greasyback shrimp Metapenaeus ensis (De Haan), white shrimp Penaeus merguiensis De Man and tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon Fabricius by sea bass Lates calcarifer Bloch and mangrove snapper Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Forsskal) was evaluated. The shrimp juveniles measured 6–15 mm in carapace length; fish measured 6.5–12.5 cm in standard length; structure types were pneumatophores of the mangrove Sonneratia griffithii Kurz and dried coconut leaf bracts; structure densities were 0, 32 and 98 pneumatophores per tank; and sediment particle sizes were pebbles, sand-granules and silt–sand. Predation on shrimp was significantly higher in controls or bare sand (48.7%) than among pneumatophores (29.9%), but not among leaf bracts (43.5%). Shrimp mortality was also significantly higher on bare sand (72.9%) compared to medium-density (54.2%), but not high-density (68.8%), pneumatophores. Fish predation on the burying shrimp M. ensis was affected by predator type but not by sediment size. The generally higher predation rates of snapper may be due to their habit of leaving unconsumed pieces of shrimp, whereas sea bass which devour whole prey require fewer shrimp to reach satiation. Moreover, the presence of structures did not affect sea bass behaviour of chasing prey among pneumatophores and under leaf bracts, but reduced predation by the relatively passive snapper. Predation rates among pneumatophores vs. control, and among medium-density pneumatophores vs. bare sand, were lower for P. monodon but not P. merguiensis. This may be related to the greater and more frequent use of (laboratory) shelters by juvenile tiger shrimp compared to white shrimp. The results demonstrate that the effective provision of shelter depends not only on structure type and density but on the behaviour of predator and prey as well. The use of mangrove structures (pneumatophores) by juvenile shrimp as refuge from predation is also documented for the first time.
Conference paperH Araki - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterAccumulating evidence suggests rapid adaptation of fish populations when they are exposed to artificial hatchery environments. However, little is known if rapidly-adapted populations can readapt to their original, natural environment at the same rate. Here, I review recent studies on salmonid fish that address this issue. They indeed suggest rapid adaptation of hatchery populations, in which reproductive fitness under a natural environment became much lower than that in the wild population after only 1-2 generations of captive breeding. However, the reproductive fitness did not recover after one generation of natural rearing, implying that rapid adaptation to a new environment was not reversible at the same rate. I discuss potential consequences of the irreversible fitness reduction in extensively stocked fish species. Understanding the mechanism behind the irreversible rapid adaptation in fish populations will help us figure out a better, nature-friendly, and hence sustainable means of hatchery operations for human welfare.
ArticleGF Quinitio, NB Caberoy & DM Reyes Jr. -
The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh, 1997 - Society of Israeli Aquaculture and Marine BiotechnologyMature female groupers (Epinephelus coioides) of different sizes were stocked in three floating net cages (2 fishes each) and in tanks (2-4 fishes) to induce sex change in the bigger female grouper after isolation from the original group. All the bigger fish (initial body weight 5.0-6.1 kg) in the floating net cages changed into males by the end of the experiment, while the smaller ones (initial body weight 4.5-5.2 kg) remained female. The fastest sex change was in cage 1 where the bigger fish had atretic oocytes one month after stocking and was milting after four months. In the other cages, milt production in the bigger fish was observed 6-10 months after stocking. In the tank-reared groupers, the biggest fish (initial body weight 6.4 kg) in the tank with four fishes was found to be milting about two months after stocking while the smaller fishes (initial body weight 3.4-4.0 kg) were still females. The fishes started to spawn two months later. In another tank that was stocked with two females, no sex change was observed in the bigger fish even 16 months after stocking. These results indicate that female groupers can be sexually changed into male by social control at the shortest period of four months in floating net cages and two months in tanks. However, there may be cases wherein sex change will not occur.