Abalone aquaculture for stock enhancement and community livelihood project in northern Palawan, Philippines
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One of the interventions to feed the poorest of the poor fisheries sector in the country is the provision of livelihood in the form of mariculture of high value marine species. In the Philippines, livelihood in rural areas is largely linked to resource depletion, hence it is wise not only to provide livelihood to the community but also to encourage them to conserve and enhance the resources. As part of the revised R&D program, the Western Philippines University partnered with NGO and existing projects to embark on a community-based environment-concerned livelihood project, using hatchery bred abalone, although top shell was also considered for stock enhancement. This is in an on-going project thus, preliminary phases such as abalone production and cage-based grow-out as well as subsequent project plans will be discussed. The objectives of this study were to: (a) share the implementing experiences in this project, (b) identify success and failure drivers of the project, (c) explain the conceptual framework for the MPA-based stock enhancement to be used in this project, and (d) give recommendations to improve the implementation and ensure the success of the project.The following activities have thus far been conducted: (a) development of criteria for cage micro-site selection; (b) writing of proposal and provision of financial assistance for hatchery juvenile production through a partnership MOA; (c) presentation of site survey results to beneficiaries and stake holders; (d) conduct of trainings on abalone grow out culture to POs; (e) development and improvement of training module; (f) signing of conservation agreement; (g) giving of cage materials and juveniles to people s organizations; (h) on site coaching; and (i) partial monitoring. The next activities include improvement in juvenile production, conduct of researches on abalone nutrition, and development of market and value chain flow analysis. The conceptual framework for community-managed stock enhancement will follow that of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources-ICRMP, of which the stock enhancement project is anchored on the management of marine protected areas or MPAs.The steps in all the activities were documented and while the project was in progress, performance of the participants in training were measured, the training module was improved, the training approaches were revised according to needs, and the growth and survival of juvenile abalone were monitored. The problems identified were low production of juveniles, insufficient food for grow-out, political squabbles, social preparation, and delay in implementation schedule. Recommendations to improve or resolve the problems encountered were also presented in this paper.
Gonzales, B. J. (2015). Abalone aquaculture for stock enhancement and community livelihood project in northern Palawan, Philippines. In M. R. R. Romana-Eguia, F. D. Parado-Estepa, N. D. Salayo, & M. J. H. Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production of Aquatic Species: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA) (pp. 137-146). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center. http://hdl.handle.net/10862/2769
PublisherAquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
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Conference paperT Sugaya - In JH Primavera, ET Quinitio & MR Eguia (Eds.), Proceedings of the Regional Technical Consultation on Stock Enhancement for Threatened Species of International Concern, Iloilo City, Philippines, 13-15 July 2005, 2006 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterIn the 1960s, the Japanese economy was starting to industrialize. The rapid increase in business investment in new factories and equipment stimulated a yearly economic growth rate of approximately 12% (METI 1970). However, these developments have disrupted coastal landscapes through land reclamation and industrial effluents (Fishery Agency 1980a). Furthermore, overfishing has accelerated with increased consumer spending and demand for fish protein. Consequently, coastal fish resources such as red sea bream (Pagrus major), kuruma prawn (Marsupenaeus japonicus) and swimming crab (Portunus trituberculatus) have been depleted and income of coastal fisherfolk has decreased (Fishery Agency, 1980). Under such conditions, the Japanese government initiated the Stock Enhancement Program in 1963 (Fishery Agency, 1980; Imamura, 1999). The program initially targeted red sea bream and kuruma prawn in the Seto Inland Sea in southern Japan which covers almost 3,000 islands (Imamura, 1999). Because the fundamental concept of stock enhancement programs was to compensate juvenile loss caused by high larval mortality in the ocean, development of mass juvenile production techniques was emphasized (Fishery Agency 1980a; Matsuoka, 1989). Therefore, the release of juveniles became a typical form of stock enhancement in Japan. The current number of target species for stock enhancement has increased to almost 80 species. Stock enhancement is undertaken by both the national government and local governments together with conservation of fishing ground and regulation of fish catches for resource management (Resource Association 1983a; Imamura 1999; Fishery Agency 2000; JASFA 2003a). This article reports the present status of stock enhancement in Japan from the organizational and technical viewpoints.
Conference paperM Chaengkij - In JH Primavera, ET Quinitio & MR Eguia (Eds.), Proceedings of the Regional Technical Consultation on Stock Enhancement for Threatened Species of International Concern, Iloilo City, Philippines, 13-15 July 2005, 2006 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThe paper provides a comprehensive list of endangered freshwater, brackishwater, and marine aquatic species in Thailand. The Thai Department of Fisheries is breeding some of the endangered species under the “Rehabilitation of Thai Local Fishes and Aquatic Animals Project.” Some of these species are bred for restocking in the wild.
Conference paperNA Lopez - In JH Primavera, ET Quinitio & MR Eguia (Eds.), Proceedings of the Regional Technical Consultation on Stock Enhancement for Threatened Species of International Concern, Iloilo City, Philippines, 13-15 July 2005, 2006 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThe paper provides the lists of fisheries related species perceived to be extinct, rare, threatened and endangered as covered under the CITES, IUCN and the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR)-Fisheries Administrative Order (FAO) No. 208. The listings of freshwater fisheries resources constitute mostly finfishes that are all, except for one, found in the CITES list, the rest under the IUCN red lists and none in the BFAR list. Majority of the listed species are also specific to some areas like Lanao Lake, few in the RINCONADA lakes of Bicol and scarce in some other minor lakes where they are found to be endemic. Most of the indigenous cyprinid species are of commercial value to the locality and are the main source of fish protein in the daily life of the fisherfolk. The listings of marine finfishes constitute mostly sharks and seahorses which are all, except for one, found in the CITES list, the rest under the IUCN Red List and none in the BFAR-FAO list. Although BFAR listed 20 species of whales and dolphins under its FAO 208, marine mammals are not included in this report. Most of the indigenous shark species are becoming rare and extinct due to the rampant shark Status of Threatened Species and Stock Enhancement Activities in the Philippine Fisheries with the rising demand of shark fins smuggled or exported abroad. These marine finfishes are distributed in coastal waters. The listings of marine gastropods, mollusks, crustaceans and echinoderms are all found in the BFAR-FAO listings as Rare, Threatened and Endangered, while few and selective under the CITES and IUCN lists. Accordingly, these are the most common marine resource commodities that are over-exploited, gleaned and gathered illegally, and frequently exported or smuggled out of the country by unscrupulous traders.