Arachidonic acid is a major fatty acid in gonads of coral reef fishes and improves larval survival of rabbitfish Sigunus gutattus
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The supply of wild fry of coral reef fishes for aquaculture has resulted in the deterioration of their natural stock status, causing public concern. Through a series of studies on the establishment of artificial-fry production technologies for coral reef fishes, we found that ovary, testis, eggs and fry of coral reef fishes have high or intermediate levels of arachidonic acid (ArA), which is a relatively minor component in temperate and cold-water species. In gonadal polar lipids of selected coral reef, in particular demersal fishes (19 species), ArA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels ranged from 6.0% to 19.4%, from 0.9% to 6.2%, and from 7.9% to 27.8%, respectively. It is notable that the major highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) of polar lipids in all coral reef fish gonads are DHA and ArA (not EPA) in a ratio of about 2:1. This result allowed us to speculate that not only DHA but also ArA may be nutritionally much important for egg development and larval growth in coral reef fishes. Thus, feeding trials were conducted to investigate the effects of dietary ArA supplementation on reproductive performance of coral reef rabbitfish (Siganus guttatus) broodstock. The number of spawning and the number of hatched larvae tended to be better in broodstock fed diets with ArA than in those fed a diet without ArA. Next, larval rearing tests were conducted to investigate survival and growth in rabbitfish fry fed live rotifers which had been enriched with or without ArA. Fry fed the rotifers enriched with a combination of DHA Protein Selco (Inve Aquaculture, Baasrode, Belgium) + 5% ArA (VEVODAR CRUDE ARACHIDONIC OIL, DSM Food Specialties, Delft, the Netherlands) showed significantly the best survival (44.4 ± 4.5% for Day 17 fry), although growth was not different among treatments. The present study indicates that ArA is not a minor component in coral reef fishes, and that dietary ArA is very promising for the improvement of fry production technologies of the coral reef fishes.
Suloma, A., Chavez, D. R., Garibay, E. S., Furuita, H., & Ogata, H. Y. (2016). Arachidonic acid is a major fatty acid in gonads of coral reef fishes and improves larval survival of rabbitfish Sigunus gutattus. In S. L. Ortiz (Ed.), Coral reefs : ecosystems, environmental impact, and current threats (pp. 61-100). Hauppauge, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.
PublisherNova Science Publishers
The present study was financially supported by the collaborative project titled “Studies on Sustainable Production Systems of Aquatic Animals in Brackish Mangrove Areas” between Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences, Japan and the Aquaculture Department, SEAFDEC, Philippines.
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Molecular cloning and localization of GABAA receptor-associated protein in the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis HS Marcial, K Suga, S Kinoshita, G Kaneko, A Hagiwara & S Watabe -
International Review of Hydrobiology, 2014 - Wiley-VCH Verlagγ-Aminobutyric acid receptor type A-associated protein (GABARAP) and its homologs constitute a protein family found in many eukaryotes from yeast to human, and are known to be involved in intracellular membrane trafficking of GABAA receptors and autophagy. In this study, we cloned cDNA-encoding GABARAP from the monogonont rotifer Brachionus plicatilis and examined for its tissue distribution at the protein level in neonates, males and females. Using reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) techniques, we showed that like other GABARAPs, rotifer GABARAP was also composed of 117 amino acids and highly homologous to vertebrate GABARAP2 ortholog (74–76% identity). GABARAP was demonstrated with its specific antibody to be ubiquitously distributed, irrespective of neonates, males, and females, in the coronal area that covers brain and contains most mechano- and chemoreceptors. Rotifer GABARAP was also expressed in the mature eggs but not in immature eggs. Double immunostaining with mammalian anti-GABA γ receptor antibody showed that rotifer GABARAP co-localized with GABA receptor, suggesting the association of the two proteins. The presence of GABARAP in rotifer implies that it is highly conserved during evolution, and plays important roles in various biological processes.
Book chapterOM Millamena - In OM Millamena, RM Coloso & FP Pascual (Eds.), Nutrition in Tropical Aquaculture: Essentials of fish nutrition, feeds, and feeding of tropical aquatic species, 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThis section aims to teach the reader the ten essential amino acids required by fish and their chemical structures, distinguish between essential and non-essential amino acids; the fate of absorbed amino acids in fish; effects of deficiencies and excesses of dietary amino acids in fish diets; the procedure on how to determine the qualitative and quantitative amino acid requirements of fish; methods of evaluating protein quality; and how to determine protein requirements of some aquaculture species.
Amino and fatty acid profiles of wild-sourced grouper (Epinephelus coioides) broodstock and larvae VR Alava, FMP Priolo, JD Toledo, JC Rodriguez Jr., GF Quinitio, AC Sa-an, MR de la Peña & RD Caturao - In MA Rimmer, S McBride & KC Williams (Eds.), Advances in grouper aquaculture, 2004 - Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research
Series: ACIAR Monograph 110This study was undertaken to provide information on the levels of amino acids in the muscle, liver and gonad of wild-sourced broodstock and larvae, as well as in neurula eggs and day 35 larvae from a hatchery. The fatty acid composition of grouper broodstock tissues was also determined. Samples were analysed for crude protein, amino acids, total lipids and fatty acid contents. Muscle contained higher levels of crude protein and amino acids than the ovary and liver. At the early maturing stage, the grouper ovarian protein was 73.3% and lipid was 19.3%, indicating the high dietary requirements of these nutrients for ovarian development. The crude protein and amino acid contents in wild-sourced larvae were higher than that in eggs and larvae from the hatchery.