Arachidonic acid distribution in seaweed, seagrass, invertebrates and dugong in coral reef areas in the Philippines
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Arachidonic acid (ArA) was not a minor component, and ArA distributes widely in coral reef organisms. Seagrass had high linoleic acid and linolenic acid levels with low Ara, EPA and DHA levels, while some species of seaweed had intermediate or high ArA levels (5% to 12%). In starfish, sea cucumber and some species of corals, ArA was the first major fatty acid (20% to 30%), but DHA levels were very low. Bivalves, abalone and shrimps had intermediate ArA levels. Total lipids of abdominal muscle and liver of dugong had respectively ArA levels of 7.8% and 11.0%, which were higher than EPA levels (2.4% and 1.6%), but DHA levels (0.4% and 2.3%) were low. It is clear that ArA is a major fatty acid in coral reef animals. The present results suggest that the existence of an ArA-rich food chain may be widespread in coral reef areas, and that the widespread existence of ArA-rich food chain may lead to intermediate or high ArA contents in tropical species.
Suloma, A., Ogata, H. Y., Furuita, H., Garibay, E. S., & Chavez, D. R. (2007). Arachidonic acid distribution in seaweed, seagrass, invertebrates and dugong in coral reef areas in the Philippines. In K. Nakamura (Ed.), Sustainable Production Systems of Aquatic Animals in Brackish Mangrove Areas (JIRCAS Working Report No. 56) (pp. 107-111). Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan: Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences
PublisherJapan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences
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Molecular cloning and localization of GABAA receptor-associated protein in the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis HS Marcial, K Suga, S Kinoshita, G Kaneko, A Hagiwara & S Watabe -
International Review of Hydrobiology, 2014 - Wiley-VCH Verlagγ-Aminobutyric acid receptor type A-associated protein (GABARAP) and its homologs constitute a protein family found in many eukaryotes from yeast to human, and are known to be involved in intracellular membrane trafficking of GABAA receptors and autophagy. In this study, we cloned cDNA-encoding GABARAP from the monogonont rotifer Brachionus plicatilis and examined for its tissue distribution at the protein level in neonates, males and females. Using reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) techniques, we showed that like other GABARAPs, rotifer GABARAP was also composed of 117 amino acids and highly homologous to vertebrate GABARAP2 ortholog (74–76% identity). GABARAP was demonstrated with its specific antibody to be ubiquitously distributed, irrespective of neonates, males, and females, in the coronal area that covers brain and contains most mechano- and chemoreceptors. Rotifer GABARAP was also expressed in the mature eggs but not in immature eggs. Double immunostaining with mammalian anti-GABA γ receptor antibody showed that rotifer GABARAP co-localized with GABA receptor, suggesting the association of the two proteins. The presence of GABARAP in rotifer implies that it is highly conserved during evolution, and plays important roles in various biological processes.
Book chapterOM Millamena - In OM Millamena, RM Coloso & FP Pascual (Eds.), Nutrition in Tropical Aquaculture: Essentials of fish nutrition, feeds, and feeding of tropical aquatic species, 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThis section aims to teach the reader the ten essential amino acids required by fish and their chemical structures, distinguish between essential and non-essential amino acids; the fate of absorbed amino acids in fish; effects of deficiencies and excesses of dietary amino acids in fish diets; the procedure on how to determine the qualitative and quantitative amino acid requirements of fish; methods of evaluating protein quality; and how to determine protein requirements of some aquaculture species.
Amino and fatty acid profiles of wild-sourced grouper (Epinephelus coioides) broodstock and larvae VR Alava, FMP Priolo, JD Toledo, JC Rodriguez Jr., GF Quinitio, AC Sa-an, MR de la Peña & RD Caturao - In MA Rimmer, S McBride & KC Williams (Eds.), Advances in grouper aquaculture, 2004 - Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research
Series: ACIAR Monograph 110This study was undertaken to provide information on the levels of amino acids in the muscle, liver and gonad of wild-sourced broodstock and larvae, as well as in neurula eggs and day 35 larvae from a hatchery. The fatty acid composition of grouper broodstock tissues was also determined. Samples were analysed for crude protein, amino acids, total lipids and fatty acid contents. Muscle contained higher levels of crude protein and amino acids than the ovary and liver. At the early maturing stage, the grouper ovarian protein was 73.3% and lipid was 19.3%, indicating the high dietary requirements of these nutrients for ovarian development. The crude protein and amino acid contents in wild-sourced larvae were higher than that in eggs and larvae from the hatchery.