Breeding and seed production of the mangrove red snapper
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CitationEmata, A. C. (2002). Breeding and seed production of the mangrove red snapper.
PublisherNetwork of Aquaculture Centers
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Conference paperET Quinitio - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterMud crab farming has long been established in the Philippines and the country is the second top producer in the world. Except for Scylla paramamosain, the three other species, S. serrata, S. tranquebarica and S. olivacea are commonly found in the country, but S. serrata is the preferred species for farming. Crab seeds for farming are mainly from the wild and in recent years, a small percentage from the hatchery. Due to the apparent decline of the wild crab stocks, provincial and municipal ordinances have been issued by a number of Local Government Units (LGUs) along with the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) to conserve and manage the remaining resources. From the hatchery, megalopa or crab instars are grown in net cages installed in the nursery pond. Mud crab farming engages mostly in long-term grow-out culture of juvenile crabs to market size for 3-5 months, short-term fattening of lean crabs for 15-45 days, and recently, soft-shell crab production. Polyculture of juvenile crabs to market size with one to three other commodities in earthen brackishwater ponds is usually practiced. Mud crabs for soft-shell crab production are mainly from the wild, while SEAFDEC/AQD demonstrates the use of hatchery-produced juvenile mud crabs as seedstock. Refinement is continuously being done to improve the economic viability of producing crabs, although basic technologies have been developed for all phases of culture (hatchery, nursery, grow-out, fattening and soft shell crab production). The major issues facing the industry are the lack of seedstock, difficulty of zoea 5 to molt to megalopa stage, cannibalism particularly at the nursery phase, species identification at the juvenile stage, use of fish as aquafeed, diseases, effects of climate change and quality of crabs at postharvest. In 2012, the Philippine Council for Agriculture, Aquatic and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCAARRD) of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) started funding projects under the National Mud Crab Science and Technology Program (NMCSTP) to address these issues. The major aim of the Program was to improve the production, profitability and sustainability of crab farming. SEAFDEC/AQD leads in capacity building with focus on the sustainability of the mud crab industry. Various collaborations and research studies on mud crab culture enabled SEAFDEC/AQD to package mud crab technologies, conduct local and international training courses and on-site technology demonstrations, and publish extension manuals and scientific publications since the mid1990s. Research and Development activities have been translated into improved production. With the recent developments and refinements of technologies, it is expected that the Philippines will increase its production by 25-50% in the next 5 years.
Recent developments and enhancing transfer of the nursery technology for the mud crab Scylla serrata FD Parado-Estepa, V Alava, E Garibay, C Bejemino, J Sumile, J Silvestre & ET Quinitio - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThe development of hatchery techniques for seed production of mud crab is expected to address the present problem on the depletion of wild seedstock supply for stocking in grow-out ponds. The nursery serves as the link between the two phases of culture as this involves growing of juvenile crabs produced in the hatchery to sizes that are suitable for stocking in the ponds.Nursery rearing involves the use of net cages installed in ponds as holding system for ease in harvest and retrieval of crabs. In the first nursery phase, 0.3-0.5 cm carapace width (CW) juvenile crabs are reared to 1.5-2.0 cm CW for 3-4 weeks and stocks are harvested for selling or are grown further in a second nursery phase in which crabs reach 2.5-3.0 cm after another 3-4 weeks. This paper includes a review of techniques initially developed for the nursery and more recent refinements which involve the use of higher crab instar densities, provision of suitable shelters, trimming of claws and sorting. In addition, production results in farms of collaborators are presented to highlight the efficiency of dissemination and also discusses the challenges faced by the potential nursery industry.
Conference paperHS Sitoy - In JV Juario & LV Benitez (Eds.), Seminar on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, 8-12 September 1987, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1988 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThis paper reviews the works on mussel and oyster culture conducted from 1975 to 1985 by the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center Aquaculture Department at Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines. Innovative techniques developed in increasing collection of natural seeds and in improving farming techniques are presented. Results of the work on artificial seed production, bacterial depuration, uptake and elimination of heavy metals by green mussel, investigations on red tides, and microbiology of spoilage are discussed.