Formulation of aquafeeds
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The development of a feed that is both effective and economical for an aquaculture species in all its life stages is a continuous effort. Aquafeed development started when natural food sources in culture systems became inadequate and had to be supplemented with prepared feed. As fish stocking densities in culture increase, supplemental feeding is no longer sufficient. A complete feed that contains all the necessary nutrients in sufficient amounts to bring about good growth, survival, and reproduction is needed. Feed ingredients generally come from animal or plant sources and some are by-products of the food industry. There is no single feed ingredient or feedstuff that contains all the nutrients in adequate amounts. Thus, different feed ingredients are combined to make a feed that has the desired composition and nutrient levels. In combining various feed ingredients, it is important to know how much of each feed ingredient should be used to produce a cost-effective aquafeed. With the growth and expansion of aquaculture into a major industry, several fish species are being cultured; thus, the development of more efficient aquafeed formulations should continue. In developing cost-effective formulated diets, many important factors have to be considered. This chapter discusses these factors and the mathematical calculations in formulating a feed. It aims to enable students to formulate diets using purified and practical feed ingredients, and also to formulate effective supplemental and complete diets for aquaculture species.
Catacutan, M. R. (2002). Formulation of aquafeeds. In O. M. Millamena, R. M. Coloso, & F. P. Pascual (Eds.), Nutrition in Tropical Aquaculture: Essentials of fish nutrition, feeds, and feeding of tropical aquatic species (pp. 99–123). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center. http://hdl.handle.net/10862/3318
- Feed ingredients for aquaculture
- Feed formulation
- Pearson's square and algebraic equation methods
- Trial and error method
- Linear program for least cost formulation
- Purified diet formulation
- Guide questions
- Suggested readings
PublisherAquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
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Book chapterNV Golez - In OM Millamena, RM Coloso & FP Pascual (Eds.), Nutrition in Tropical Aquaculture: Essentials of fish nutrition, feeds, and feeding of tropical aquatic species, 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThis chapter will help the reader understand and appreciate the basic principles of processing, preparation, storage, and quality control in the preparation of aquafeeds. The material in this section is presented in sequence beginning with the processing of basic ingredients to remove antinutritional factors, followed by steps in feed preparation, from the easiest to the more complex processes, and storage. This chapter presents methods and equipment that are useful not only for feed millers, but also for extension workers and fish farmers.
Book chapterMB Teruel - In OM Millamena, RM Coloso & FP Pascual (Eds.), Nutrition in Tropical Aquaculture: Essentials of fish nutrition, feeds, and feeding of tropical aquatic species, 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThis chapter discusses how to evaluate feedstuffs and feeds. The results of feed evaluation will be used to ensure the production of high quality feeds for fish, crustaceans, and shellfish.
Book chapterVR Alava - In OM Millamena, RM Coloso & FP Pascual (Eds.), Nutrition in Tropical Aquaculture: Essentials of fish nutrition, feeds, and feeding of tropical aquatic species, 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThis chapter teaches the reader to: differentiate the different feeding strategies in pond culture; learn feeding management methods such as stock sampling and record keeping, calculating daily feed ration, choosing appropriate feed size, and methods of applying feeds; understand the impact of feeding management on water quality and environment and on the cultured animal’s growth, survival, and feed conversion ratio; and describe the different feeding schemes used to culture fishes (milkfish, tilapia, rabbitfish, bighead carp, native catfish, sea bass, orange-spotted grouper, and mangrove red snapper; and crustaceans (tiger shrimp and mud crab). Other species for aquaculture stock enhancement (donkey’s ear abalone, seahorses, window-pane oyster) are also discussed.