Research on crustaceans
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Crustacean research at the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department in 1994-1999 focused on two commercially important species: the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, and the mud crab Scylla serrata. Research on tiger shrimp dealt with broodstock development, refinement of shrimp culture systems, and health management. Broodstock development aimed to develop a technology for a sustainable supply of good quality captive broodstock through selective breeding. Initial efforts identified polymorphic stocks with low disease prevalence as base population and development of screening protocol to assess their health status using non-lethal procedures. Improvement of reproductive performance through studies on nutritional requirements and sperm quality was also conducted. To refine shrimp culture systems, emphasis was placed on the physiological requirements of tiger shrimp, including salinity adaptation and osmoregulatory capabilities, improvement of formulated diets, and development of culture systems that are compatible with the environment. In shrimp health management, disease problems in various culture systems with emphasis on luminescent vibriosis and some viruses were defined. The quality of hatchery-reared post-larvae compared with those caught in the wild was assessed. Research on the mud crab Scylla serrata started late in 1996. Studies were conducted on all culture phases: broodstock, hatchery, nursery, and grow-out. Broodstock development emphasized the development of an appropriate maturation system and a suitable maturation diet. The influence of eyestalk ablation and dietary history on reproductive performance was assessed. The completion of the mud crab life cycle in captivity was attained in 1997 when spawns from pond-reared females were further reared to produce second-generation broodstock. In the hatchery, larval rearing based on previous trials on feeding schemes, salinity tolerance, and water conditioning hastened progress in larviculture and formed the basis for large-scale production of mud crab juveniles. Research has shown the feasibility of direct stocking of crab megalopae in hapa nets in nursery ponds. In grow-out culture, studies have been done on the effects of stocking density, monosex culture, and practical diet development for the mud crab. Practical diets, formulated using local materials as ingredients, with or without vitamin and mineral supplementation, were found to be economically feasible for mud crab culture in ponds. Grow-out culture in mangrove pens appears to be an environment-friendly alternative to the usual open pond culture system.
Millamena, O. M. (2001). Research on crustaceans. In L. M. B. Garcia (Ed.), Responsible Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia. Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia organized by the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department, 12-14 October 1999, Iloilo City, Philippines (pp. 199–207). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department.
PublisherSEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
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ArticleML Seneriches-Abiera, F Parado-Estepa & GA Gonzales -
Aquaculture Research, 2007 - Blackwell PublishingEarly larval stages of mud crab Scylla serrata were exposed to different concentrations of nitrite (40, 80 and 160 mg L−1 and a control, without added nitrite) and three salinity levels (25, 30 and 35 g L−1) using a static renewal method. No interactive effect of nitrite and salinity was detected. Estimated LT50 in 96-h toxicity tests decreased in all stages with increasing nitrite concentrations in all salinity levels. The 96-h LC50 values of nitrite-N were 41.58, 63.04, 25.54, 29.98 and 69.93 mg L−1 for zoea 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively. As the larvae grew, they showed a progressive increase in tolerance to nitrite. The toxicity of nitrite to larvae increased with exposure time. The median lethal concentration was not affected by salinity. The chloride component of salinity within 25–35 g L−1 did not seem to be as effective in alleviating toxicity as has been reported in other crustacean species. Based on 96-h LC50 and an application factor of 0.1, the ‘safe level’ of rearing mud crab larvae was calculated to be 4.16, 6.30, 2.55, 2.99 and 6.99 mg L−1 nitrite-N for zoea 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively.
Conference paperFD Parado-Estepa - In TU Bagarinao & EEC Flores (Eds.), Towards sustainable aquaculture in Southeast Asia and Japan: Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, Iloilo City, Philippines, 26-28 July, 1994, 1995 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture DepartmentCrustacean research at the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department during the last three years focused mostly on the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. Studies were done along six problem areas: (1) developing spawning techniques for captive broodstock, (2) defining physico-chemical levels tolerable by larvae or postlarvae, (3) finding alternative feeds or fertilizers for extensive culture, (4) reducing the cost and evaluating the quality of formulated feeds for semiintensive culture, (5) preventing and controlling disease, and (6) documenting the chemicals used in shrimp culture and their effects on the environment. To reduce feed costs, substitutes for expensive feed components were screened and the specific nutrient requirements of tiger shrimp during culture were determined. A few studies were made on other crustaceans. The vitellogenin levels during maturation of the white shrimp P. indicus were measured. The digestibility of feedstuffs was also tested in the white shrimp. Culture techniques are being developed for the mudcrab Scylla serrata in ponds, pens, and cages.
ArticleCL Marte -
Aquaculture, 2003 - ElsevierThe increased requirement for food fish, the lucrative market for expensive seafood, and the need to conserve marine resources, have motivated the rapid pace of larviculture research in Southeast Asia. Various research and academic institutions in Southeast Asia such as the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center Aquaculture Department (SEAFDEC AQD) are carrying out research on commercially important marine species including 10 fish, 6 crustacean, and 7 mollusk species. Since fry availability is a major constraint in the development of culture systems, a major research thrust of SEAFDEC AQD is the development of commercially viable technologies for breeding and seed production of commercially important marine fish and crustaceans such as milkfish, groupers, snappers and mud crabs, in addition to the production of fry and juveniles of endangered and depleted species such as the sea horse and the tropical abalone for stock enhancement and sea ranching. Although hatchery production of milkfish and sea bass are now commercially viable enterprises, research is being pursued to improve fry quality through feed supplementation and to lower production cost by using alternative live or artificial feeds. Larviculture techniques are being developed for technically demanding species such as groupers and snappers. The recent success in larviculture of the mud crab Scylla serrata is expected to stimulate the growth of the mud crab industry in the region. Similarly, encouraging developments in the breeding and larviculture of the sea horse and mollusks such as the tropical abalone will provide the necessary support to carry out future stock enhancement and sea ranching programs for these species.