Disease management in shrimp farming
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Shrimp monoculture systems have been beset with devastating losses due to infectious diseases and environmental deterioration. On a global scale, efforts to make shrimp culture a sustainable industry are warranted because of the high value and demand of shrimp. A Code of Practice for Sustainable Shrimp Farming prepared by the Global Aquaculture Alliance has been adopted by various shrimp producing countries addressing issues like mangroves, site evaluation, design and construction, feeds and feed use, shrimp health management, therapeutic agents and other chemicals, general pond operations, effluents and solid wastes, and community and employee relations. Shrimp hatcheries have benefited from technological advances in practically every aspect of rearing including implements to control water quality, eliminate pathogens, and improved nutrition through innovative artificial feeds and supplements. These technologies have made postlarval production very successful, although in many cases, high survival cannot exactly be equated with good quality. Thus a closer look at hatcheries is essential to ensure that rearing protocols match the conditions to which postlarvae will be exposed to upon stocking in ponds. Compiled information on the estimated number of hatcheries and forms in major shrimp growing areas in Asia show a relatively smaller number of small independent hatcheries compared to farms, which demonstrates that effective disease control programmes need to emanate from hatcheries. Presently, three programmes for the hatchery need serious attention. These are (a) the continued implementation of fry analysis procedures, not only as a marketing tool, but so as to exclude pathogenic organisms from ponds, (b) adherence to agreed-upon codes of practice and conformity with accepted guidelines on live transfers to minimise disease spread, and (c) development of a reliable source of domesticated broodstock and incorporating specific pathogen free (SPF) and specific pathogen resistant (SPR) stocks in these programmes to minimise or eliminate dependence on wild broodstock. One of the main constraints is the lack of cost-effective and efficient methods to prevent and correct environmental deterioration, and to maintain biosecurity. In addition to providing primary health care, disease control strategies should be a combination of pathogen exclusion and environmental management: the former for primary pathogens such as viruses and the latter for secondary pathogens like bacteria, whose pathogenicity is heightened by environmental degradation and lowered resistance of shrimps. Shrimp forming should start employing systems to manage and lessen waste and the outflow of organic pollutants that could contribute to self-pollution or deterioration of the quality of receiving waters. These include improved feeds and conversion ratios to make feed utilisation more economical and efficient, implementation of recirculating or zero discharge technology, improving the efficiency of aeration systems, improvement of pond siting, understanding of the pond ecosystem and the role of microbes in the environment. In addition to implementing disease control measures and ensuring product quality in various industry sectors, approaches need to be welded together for a holistic approach to health management.
In: Subasinghe, S., Singh, T. (eds.). Production and Marketing of Shrimp: Trends & Outlook. Proceedings of Shrimp 2001 Chennai, The Fourth World Conference on the Shrimp Industry and Trade and Buyer-Seller Meet, 27-29 September 2001, Chennai, India. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: INFOFISH. pp. 147-154
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BookCR Lavilla-Pitogo, GD Lio-Po, ER Cruz-Lacierda, EV Alapide-Tendencia & LD de la Peña - 2000 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 16The manual provides information on the diseases that affect the 3 major species of shrimps cultured in the Philippines: Penaeus monodon, P. merguiensis and P. indicus. It includes the common name of the disease, causative agent, species affected, stages affected, gross signs, effects on the host and methods of prevention and treatment. This revised edition includes newly discovered diseases. It is hoped that the manual will be of considerable help to shrimp farmers in identifying the disease and lead to prevention or early disease diagnosis and control.
Conference paperY Wong & J Jiang - In RV Pakingking Jr., EGT de Jesus-Ayson & BO Acosta (Eds.), Addressing Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND) and Other Transboundary Diseases for Improved Aquatic … Diseases for Improved Aquatic Animal Health in Southeast Asia, 22-24 February 2016, Makati City, Philippines, 2016 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterSingapore has a small shrimp farming industry with approximately 54 metric tons (MT) of shrimps produced in one year from both land and coastal farms. There is also one shrimp farm producing broodstock for export. Singapore has the capability to diagnose acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) through histopathology and the isolation of its causal agent which is Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for AHPND detection in shrimp is currently being undertaken to further strengthen its laboratory and diagnostic capacity. Notably, Singapore is still AHPND-free. On the contrary, white spot disease caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a disease of concern as it affects the trade for ornamental crustaceans. Singapore has an active surveillance program for WSSV and other transboundary pathogens of penaeid shrimps. Positive detections would be followed by movement controls and stamping out protocols.
Conference paperMG Bondad-Reantaso - In RV Pakingking Jr., EGT de Jesus-Ayson & BO Acosta (Eds.), Addressing Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND) and Other Transboundary Diseases for Improved Aquatic … Diseases for Improved Aquatic Animal Health in Southeast Asia, 22-24 February 2016, Makati City, Philippines, 2016 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThe Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations Agricultural Outlook 2015-2024 reported that fisheries production worldwide is projected to expand by 19% between the 2012-14 base period and 2024, to reach 191 million metric tons (MT) and the main driver of this increase will be aquaculture, which is expected to reach 96 million MT by 2024, 38% higher than the base period (average 2012-14) level. Among the 7 key uncertainties that affect gains in productivity, the potential of animal disease outbreaks to affect aquaculture production and subsequently domestic and international markets are once again highlighted, although for the first time in this outlook. Another milestone document, the Blue frontiers: managing the environmental costs of aquaculture identified a number of fish health issues, including increased risk of the spread of pathogens and diseases with intensification, through increased movement of aquatic animals, inter-regional trade and introduction of new species and new strains, and through the use of trash fish or live feed; concerns on residues and development of drug resistant pathogens brought about by the abuse on the use antimicrobials and other veterinary drugs; limited availability of vaccines; environmental stressors that compromise the immune system; difficulties faced by developing countries in implementing international standards; and the need for legislation, enforcement and capacity building. The issues identified then and now are almost the same. Addressing animal health issues in aquaculture is very challenging because the sector is highly complex (with a wide range of diversity in terms of species, systems, practices and environment, each presenting different risks), its fluid environment, and the transboundary nature where fish is considered as one of the most traded commodity, aquatic animals require more attention in order to monitor their health: they are not visible except in tank holding conditions; they live in a complex and dynamic environment and feed consumption and mortalities are hidden under water. This paper looks at the status of a newly emerging disease of cultured shrimp, acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND), which has been recognized as the most important non-viral disease threat to cultured shrimp. In particular, this paper presents the highlights of the International Technical Seminar/Workshop: EMS/AHPND: Government, Scientist and Farmer Responses held from 22-24 June 2015 in Panama City, Panama, which was organized under the auspices of an FAO inter-regional project TCP/INT/3502: Reducing and Managing the Risks of AHPND of Cultured Shrimp, being participated by 11 countries, namely: Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Panama and Peru from Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region and India, Iran, the Philippines and Sri Lanka from the Asian region. The Panama EMS/AHPND June 2015 event aimed to provide a platform to improve the understanding of the disease through the lens of governments, scientists and producers and collectively generate practical management and control measures. More than 100 stakeholders from 21 countries representing the government, academe and producer sectors participated in the event. The highlights contain the latest available information at that time (June 2015) about AHPND including the current state of knowledge about the causative agent, the host and geographical distribution, detection methods, risk factors, management and actions of regional and international organizations.