The use of chemicals in aquaculture in Taiwan, Province of China
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Aquaculture in Taiwan has a history of more than three centuries. To satisfy consumer preferences, a wide variety of aquatic species, 71 in 1993, are being cultured in Taiwan. It is difficult to control diseases when many species are cultured and stocking densities are high. At present, it is important to manage the use and application of chemotherapeutants effectively. Many aquatic animal diseases fall under the category of potentially curable illnesses. These include diseases of bacterial, protozoan, fungal, and environmental etiologies. This paper summarizes the chemicals used in aquaculture, farm management practices, alternative disease prevention methods, national regulations, and the current research on chemical use for aquaculture in Taiwan.
Liao, I. C., Guo, J. J., & Su, M. (2000). The use of chemicals in aquaculture in Taiwan, Province of China. In: J. R. Arthur, C. R. Lavilla-Pitogo, & R. P. Subasinghe (Eds.) Use of Chemicals in Aquaculture in Asia : Proceedings of the Meeting on the Use of Chemicals in Aquaculture in Asia 20-22 May 1996, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines (pp. 193-205). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center.
PublisherAquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
Stocking density; Anaesthetics; Protozoan diseases; Disease control; Potassium compounds; Antibiotics; Aquaculture; Environmental factors; Aetiology; Feed composition; Disinfectants; Fertilizers; Consumers; Copper compounds; Bacteriocides; Fungal diseases; Drugs; Ammonium compounds; Ichthyocides; Chlorine compounds; Aquaculture regulations; Husbandry diseases; Bacterial diseases; Saponins; Salts; Iodine compounds; Dyes; Fish diseases; Fungicides; Pesticides; Prophylaxis; Quinolines; Animal diseases; Taiwan
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Conference paperS Mohamed, G Nagaraj, FHC Chua & YG Wang - In JR Arthur, CR Lavilla-Pitogo & RP Subasinghe (Eds.), Use of Chemicals in Aquaculture in Asia : Proceedings of the Meeting on the Use of Chemicals in Aquaculture in Asia 20-22 May 1996, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 2000 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterAquaculture is an increasingly important force in both the Malaysian as well as the Singaporean economies. In recent years, Singapore has focused on the aquarium fish trade, making it one of the largest ornamental fish production and transhipment centers in the world. Similarly, the Malaysian aquaculture industry has made rapid strides in the last few years and is poised to become a major contributor to the national fish supply by the early part of the next century. A significant trend in both countries has been the growing intensification of culture systems to achieve higher production per unit area. This has led to a greater occurrence of disease, particularly among aquarium fish, shrimp and marine fish farms. To obviate and control these diseases, there has been a concurrent increase in the use of chemotherapeutants. The three major groups of commonly used chemotherapeutants are: topical disinfectants, antimicrobials and probiotics. There is a wide range of topical disinfectants used by aquafarmers. The most common of these include lime, teaseed cake, formalin, benzalkonium chloride, acriflavine, malachite green, hypochlorite and poly-vinyl pyrrolidine. Of these, lime and teaseed cake are used exclusively in ponds, and acriflavine and malachite green only in hatcheries, while the others are used in both systems. Antimicrobials being used include sulfonamides, tetracyclines, nitrofurans, chloramphenicol, oxolinic acid and virginiamycin. A number of other chemotherapeutants are also used, albeit on a limited basis. The current concerns surrounding the use of chemotherapeutants and the legislative framework surrounding their sale and distribution are also discussed.
Conference paperFD Parado-Estepa - In TU Bagarinao & EEC Flores (Eds.), Towards sustainable aquaculture in Southeast Asia and Japan: Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, Iloilo City, Philippines, 26-28 July, 1994, 1995 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterCrustacean research at the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department during the last three years focused mostly on the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. Studies were done along six problem areas: (1) developing spawning techniques for captive broodstock, (2) defining physico-chemical levels tolerable by larvae or postlarvae, (3) finding alternative feeds or fertilizers for extensive culture, (4) reducing the cost and evaluating the quality of formulated feeds for semiintensive culture, (5) preventing and controlling disease, and (6) documenting the chemicals used in shrimp culture and their effects on the environment. To reduce feed costs, substitutes for expensive feed components were screened and the specific nutrient requirements of tiger shrimp during culture were determined. A few studies were made on other crustaceans. The vitellogenin levels during maturation of the white shrimp P. indicus were measured. The digestibility of feedstuffs was also tested in the white shrimp. Culture techniques are being developed for the mudcrab Scylla serrata in ponds, pens, and cages.
Anti-luminous Vibrio factors associated with the ‘green water’ grow-out culture of the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon GD Lio-Po, EM Leaño, MMD Peñaranda, AU Villa-Franco, CD Sombito & NG Guanzon Jr. -
Aquaculture, 2005 - ElsevierThe ability of the “green water” grow-out culture of the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon to prevent outbreaks of Luminous Vibriosis was investigated by screening associated isolates of bacteria, fungi, phytoplankton and fish skin mucus for anti-luminous Vibrio metabolites. Among the 85 bacterial isolates tested, 63 (74%) caused +∼+++ inhibition of the Vibrio harveyi pathogen after 24–48 h co-cultivation. The variation in growth inhibition rates of +, ++, and +++ were demonstrated by 15 (18%), 13 (15%), and 28 (33%) isolates, respectively, 24 h after treatment. Eight bacterial isolates showed consistently sustained maximum inhibition of luminous Vibrio after 24 to 48 h exposure. The majority of these luminous Vibrio inhibiting bacterial isolates were obtained from tilapia mucus and gut. In tests with fungi, 4 of 20 (20%) yeast isolates showed intracellular metabolites inhibitory to luminous Vibrio. Among filamentous fungi, 5 of 45 (11%) isolates yielded intracellular metabolites while 3 of 41 (7%) isolates had extracellular metabolites inhibitory to luminous Vibrio. These fungal isolates were identified as Rhodotorula sp., Saccharomyces sp., Candida sp., Penicillium sp., mycelia sterilia, and two unidentified species. The microalgae, Chaetoceros calcitrans and Nitzchia sp., consistently demonstrated complete inhibition of luminous Vibrio from 24 h and 48 h post exposure, respectively, and during the 7-day experiment. Leptolyngbia sp. caused a 94–100% reduction of the luminous Vibrio population from 104 to 101 cfu/ml 24 h post exposure which was sustained throughout the 10-day observation period. In contrast, the inhibitory effects of Skeletonema costatum on luminous Vibrio was bacteriostatic throughout the 7-day exposure while Nannochlorum sp. did not significantly inhibit luminous Vibrio. The skin mucus of jewel tilapia, Tilapia hornorum, had no resident luminous bacteria and inhibited this bacterial pathogen in 6–48 h, which was proportionate to the 103 and 105 cfu/ml test concentrations of luminous Vibrio. This study provides a scientific explanation that the effectiveness of the “green water” culture of tiger shrimp (P. monodon) in preventing outbreaks of luminous Vibriosis among P. monodon juveniles in grow-out ponds can be attributed to the presence of anti-luminous Vibrio factors in the bacterial, fungal, phytoplankton microbiota and the skin mucus of tilapia associated with this novel technique of shrimp culture.