Fish nutrition in Thailand: Status and constraints
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Aquaculture prior to World War II was limited because marine and freshwater fish catches were still abundant. But shortage of fuel and other necessities led to an increase in food prices including fish. The demand for increased fish production in turn increased the number of people involved in fish farming and the number of species cultured to more than 25. The 13 species most commonly cultured include the walking catfish (Clarias batrachus), snakehead (Channa straitus),striped catfish (Pangasius sutchi), gouramy (Trichogaster pectoralis), sand goby (Oxyeleotris marmoratus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), silver carp (Hypopthalmichthys molitrix), bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), sea bass (Lates calcarifer), grouper (Epinephelus tauvina), and tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). Thailand is a major producer of agricultural products in Asia. Large quantities of raw feed materials are produced and consumed each year. Although aquaculture has been in existence as long as land-based agriculture, it has not kept up in terms of feed development. The feeding methods of most cultured fishes are still largely traditional and based on experience using trash fish, rice bran, and broken rice. It was only recently that aquaculture began using feeds to increase production. In 1986, shrimp culture began evolving toward the semi-intensive and intensive systems, and the demand for compound feeds greatly increased. Commercial feed factories expanded to include shrimp feeds, further developing the feed industry.
Havanont, V. (1993). Fish nutrition in Thailand: Status and constraints. In C. T. Villegas, M. T. Castaños, & R. B. Lacierda (Eds.), Proceedings of the Aquaculture Workshop for SEAFDEC/AQD Training Alumni, 8-11 September 1992, Iloilo, Philippines (pp. 74-79). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center. http://hdl.handle.net/10862/640
PublisherAquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
Animal nutrition; Shrimp culture; Feed; Prawn culture; Cultured organisms; Aquaculture; Fish culture; Aquaculture systems; Ctenopharyngodon idella; Penaeus monodon; Clarias batrachus; Trichogaster pectoralis; Aristichthys nobilis; Hypophthalmichthys molitrix; Oxyeleotris marmoratus; Lates calcarifer; Pangasius sutchi; Channa striatus; Epinephelus tauvina; Macrobrachium rosenbergii; Oreochromis niloticus; Thailand; Chevron snakehead; Giant perch; Giant river prawn; Giant tiger prawn; Grass carp; Silver carp; Snake-skinned gourami; Striped snakehead; Walking catfish
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Potential of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) meal as an alternative protein source in diets for giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii, de Man 1879) FA Aya, ML Cuvin-Aralar & RM Coloso - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterGrowth trials were conducted to evaluate cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) meal as a potential protein source in diets for giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man 1879), reared in tank and lake-based cages. Five isonitrogenous (approximately 37% crude protein) and isocaloric diets were formulated where fish meal (FM) protein was replaced with 0%, 15%, 30%, 45% and 60% cowpea meal protein (or CP0, CP15, CP30, CP45, and CP60, respectively). Results of an 8-week tank trial showed that the final body weight (FBW), percent weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR) and survival of prawns were not significantly influenced by dietary treatments (P > 0.05), although the highest values, except for survival, were observed with CP45. In a lakebased cage trial that lasted for 16 weeks, prawns fed CP30 and CP45 had significantly higher FBW (13.1 and 14.4 g, respectively) compared to other treatment groups (P < 0.05). SGR (4.52 5.00%/ day), survival rates (53-77%), yield (98.5-116.5 g m-2) and feed conversion ratio (FCR; 2.0-2.7) were not affected by increasing levels of cowpea meal in the diets. Based on these results, cowpea meal can be considered as an alternative protein source in diets for M. rosenbergii.
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