Proceedings of the Aquaculture Workshop for SEAFDEC/AQD Training Alumni, 8-11 September 1992, Iloilo, Philippines.

Edited by C.T. Villegas, M.T. Castaños, and R.B. Lacierda. Contains country papers and the experiences of former AQD trainees, now aquaculture practitioners. Includes review of AQD research, training, and information dissemination from 1988 to 1992, and an assessment of the manpower needs in aquaculture.

Recent Submissions

  • Conference paper

    Shrimp hatchery and grow-out operations in Thailand. 

    T Wattanamahard - 1993 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC/AQD)
    Shrimp farming in Thailand has been practiced since more than 50 years ago. This began with the extensive system (traditional method) where shrimp fry are allowed to enter ponds during the high tide, and then harvested after some time. Production then was low and widely fluctuated. After the Department of Fisheries (DOF) successfully spawned and nursed the shrimp (Penaeus, )new techniques were developed and this led to more intensive culture systems. Production of shrimp from aquaculture continuously increased - from 991 t in 1972 to 130,000 t in 1991. The estimated production for 1992 is 150,000 t.

    The tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) is the most desired species due to its rapid growth (commonly grows to 30 g in 4 months in ponds) and its high export value. It is also the major species cultured especially in the intensive system. The other species are banana shrimp (P. merguiensis), white shrimp (P. indicus), and Metapenaeus ensis. These are normally grown in extensive and semi-intensive culture systems.
  • Conference paper

    Shrimp seed production in Malaysia. 

    Muhamad Hatta Bin Haji Mahmud - 1993 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC/AQD)
    The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and the marine shrimp, Penaeus monodon, are now becoming the most important cultured species in Malaysia. The progress in the aquaculture of these species has led to the development of hatcheries in various parts of the country. To date, a total of 50 hatcheries are now in operation.

    Fry production technology varies between hatcheries. For M. rosenbergii, clear-water, closed system, and green-water larviculture techniques are common. For P. monodon, the two-tank and one-tank larviculture systems are used. A range of problems such as lack of skilled hatchery personnel, larval diseases, and lack of financial support hampers hatchery operations. In order to ensure the continued operation of the hatcheries, the Department of Fisheries (Malaysia) is providing the necessary support services and technical assistance.
  • Conference paper

    Aquaculture development in Malaysia in the 1990s. 

    SA Hamid - 1993 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC/AQD)
    Aquaculture is still at an early stage of development in Malaysia. In 1991, for example, Malaysia's total aquaculture production amounted to only 64,344t, while the overall fish production for the year totalled 976,272 t.

    In recent years, however, there have been significant aquaculture expansion and development in the country. This was fueled not only by the declining catch rates in coastal and inland fisheries but also by the technical advances in aquaculture. There is still considerable potential for further development and production is expected to increase steadily for all the cultured species. With concerted efforts by the public and private sectors, aquaculture could contribute an annual production of more than 200,000 t by year 2000.
  • Conference paper

    The shrimp hatchery industry in the Philippines. 

    E Lamera - 1993 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC/AQD)
    Fifteen years after SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department first offered its training course on Barangay Prawn Hatchery Management, the giant tiger shrimp industry has grown tremendously. Among the private investors in shrimp (Penaeus monodon) hatchery is Jamandre Industries, Inc. But problems (e.g., scarcity of spawners and lack of effective artificial feeds) led the company to explore culture of penaeid shrimps other than tiger shrimp. Although survival of P. stylilostris and P. vannamei were found to be higher than P. monodon in grow-out ponds and in the hatchery, their culture did not take off in the country. For the penaeid shrimps, technology remains largely an art.
  • Conference paper

    Status and problems of marine fish seed production in Thailand. 

    J Pimoljinda - 1993 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC/AQD)
    Aquaculture of marine fishes such as sea bass, milkfish, and mullet among others, have been conducted in Thailand for a long time in its provinces along the coast. The fry of these fishes have been collected from natural waters and cultured for the consumption of the family. The traditional method was used in rearing these fishes - flowing seawater into earthen ponds using the bamboo stake trap as the water gate, and culturing trapped fry. Feed was usually the juveniles of other species that come with the water. Needless to say, production was very low.

    Rearing marine fish in commercial scale is fairly recent, only in the last 30 years. Seed collection, transport, nursery, grow-out culture, and rearing techniques have been experimented by the Department of Fisheries since 1954 at its Prachuab Fisheries Station. The results were then disseminated to fish farmers. The species which are popularly cultured include sea bass (Lates calcarifer), red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus), and grouper (Epinephelus tauvina ).
  • Conference paper

    Fish diseases in Thailand: status and problems. 

    W Sreevatana - 1993 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC/AQD)
    In Thailand, there are several species cultured and systems of freshwater and marine aquaculture. However, improper management and lack of government control on the area and number of ponds contribute to the deterioration of the environment. One consequence of environmental degradation is the occurrence of diseases.
  • Conference paper

    Fish diseases in Malaysia: status and problems. 

    S Sayuthi - 1993 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC/AQD)
    Aquaculture is still at an early stage of development in Malaysia; however, it has expanded quite rapidly over the past decade or so. Under the National Agriculture Policy, aquaculture development has been given high priority and entrepreneurs are given various incentives and support services.

    The technologies of various aquaculture systems in Malaysia are already well developed. Many farms adopt intensive culture system and where inadequate fish seed is a constraint, importation from neighboring countries supports culture. It is in the intensive culture system, both in the hatchery and grow-out phases, that diseases often occur. Diseases have resulted in significant economic loss to fish and shrimp farmers.

    The study of fish parasites has been carried out for sometime but it dealt mainly with taxonomy. The systematic study of fish disease and its documentation are comparatively new. At present, three institutions are involved in fish disease research: Fisheries Research Institute under the Department of Fisheries, Agriculture University of Malaysia, and Science University of Malaysia.
  • Conference paper

    Shrimp grow-out culture techniques in the Philippines. 

    A Gicos - 1993 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC/AQD)
    The major commercial shrimp species in the Philippines belong to the genus Penaeus and Metapenaeus. The important penaeid shrimps are: P. monodon (giant tiger shrimp or sugpo); P. japonicus and P. semisulcatus (tiger shrimp and bulik or sugpo); and P. merguiensis and P. indicus (white shrimp and Indian white shrimp or putian). The giant tiger shrimp is the major species cultured in ponds while the others are incidental crops.

    There are 210,000 ha of potential and existing brackishwater ponds in the Philippines (Fig. 1). Because most of these are underdeveloped, present technologies are aimed at improving production or encouraging the development of new areas.

    Brackishwater fishfarming in the country is primarily centered on milkfish (Chanos chanos) (Table 1). Shrimp used to be merely an incidental crop when postlarvae from the wild enter the milkfish ponds. In the last decade, many traditional milkfish growers recognize the market of shrimps, primarily the giant tiger shrimp. Polyculture of milkfish and shrimp was practiced, and the fishfarmers shifted to shrimp monoculture when price of shrimp in the international market went up.

    In the mid-70s, SEAFDEC/AQD developed and extended its shrimp hatchery technology, and hatcheries proliferated throughout the country. Seed supply became abundant, encouraging more people to invest in grow-out culture. However, production remained low and inconsistent since the growout technology remains largely an art.

    When Taiwanese grow-out technology was introduced in the country and research in shrimp was intensified in the Department of Agriculture, University of the Philippines, and SEAFDEC/AQD, new coastal areas were developed particularly in Negros Island where vast tracts of sugarland and rice land were converted to shrimp ponds. Milkfish ponds were also renovated for shrimp culture.

    There are four shrimp culture levels in the country, namely: traditional, extensive, semi-intensive, and intensive which vary mainly in pond design, stocking density, feeds and feeding, and water management (Table 2). Only the semi-intensive and intensive culture systems are discussed.
  • Conference paper

    Milkfish breeding program in the Philippines. 

    NB Arevalo - 1993 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC/AQD)
    The National Bangus Breeding Project (NBBP) was established in 1981 in compliance with a presidential directive. Breeding and hatchery techniques for milkfish (Chanos chanos) developed by the Aquaculture Department of the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC/AQD) are adopted. The project is a joint undertaking of the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) of the Department of Agriculture and SEAFDEC/ AQD with the former as the lead implementing agency.
  • Conference paper

    The shrimp farming industry in the Philippines 

    V Corre Jr. - 1993 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC/AQD)
    The shrimp farming industry in the Philippines is the culture of shrimp (Penaeus monodon) in brackishwater and seawater grow-out farms to marketable size. The industry is highly dependent upon the other sectors/components of the shrimp culture industry, including:
    1. the shrimp hatcheries for their supply of fry (PLs);
    2. the feed millers for their supply of commercial pelletized feeds, primarily for semi-intensive and intensive shrimp farms;
    3. the shrimp processors/exporters for the purchase of their harvests;
    4. the financial institutions for their capital and operational costs; and
    5. the research institutions and the government for solutions to technical and other problems.

    Such dependence makes shrimp farming vulnerable. Other than that, it is also a high risk business. In addition, monsoon rains, typhoons, and floods can significantly affect shrimp farming. Pollution from watershed activities and from self-generated organic load has resulted in slower shrimp growth, higher susceptibility of shrimp to diseases, and mass mortalities. Widely fluctuating export market prices and demands are also major concerns of the industry.
  • Conference paper

    Fish nutrition in Malaysia: status and problems. 

    Z Talib - 1993 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC/AQD)
    In aquaculture, nothing is more important than a well-balanced diet and adequate feeding. An undernourished fish is never able to maintain its health and attain its growth potential regardless of the quality of its environment. The production of nutritionally balanced diet for fish requires research, quality control, and biological evaluation.

    The Department of Fisheries first acknowledged the importance of formulated feed when it established the Feed Section at the Fisheries Research Institute in Glugor in 1976. With the establishment of the research branch, Brackishwater Aquaculture Research Centre (BARC), in Gelang Patah, Johor in 1979 and the National Prawn Fry Production and Research Centre (NAPFRE) in Pulau Sayak, Kedah in 1987, the feed section has been expanded further to cover pond grow-out feeds for fishes and shrimps and the postlarval stage of shrimps. The feed section in Glugor placed greater emphasis on larval and postlarval feed. In the case of freshwater fishes, research and production of feeds began in 1975 at the Freshwater Fish Research Station, Batu Berendam, Melaka.

    The development of formulated feeds is concentrated on fishes and crustaceans.
  • Conference paper

    Seed production of marine fish in Malaysia. 

    MZ Muhammad - 1993 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC/AQD)
    Aquaculture especially brackishwater fish culture in Malaysia has a very high potential for development. It is also a very important source of protein. The three major species cultured in cages are sea bass, grouper, and snapper. They are very popular, especially sea bass which is a highly esteemed delicacy. Sea bass culture started in the mid-1970. The fry was obtained from the wild or imported from Thailand or Singapore. This industry developed slowly because of inadequate supply of seed. During this period also, the culturist had very little experience in managing the cages.

    As an answer to the problems of the industry, the Fisheries Research Institute (FRI) of the Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture, Glugor, Penang, established a unit responsible for research on hatchery propagation, larval feed development, and cage culture of sea bass. The Brackishwater Unit of FRI situated in Gelang Patah, Johor is responsible for research and development of sea bass grow-out in coastal ponds. The Marine Finfish Production and Research Centre (MFPRC) situated in Tanjung Demong, Terengganu was set up in 1982 for marine fish fry mass production. The Extension Branch of the Department of Fisheries in Kuala Lumpur is responsible for all extension services, including promotion of sea bass aquaculture as well as other species. The Extension Branch also operates the MFPRC and organizes training on coastal aquaculture at the Brackishwater Aquaculture Centre in Johor.

    The Fisheries Development Authority of Malaysia (LKIM), a government statutory body formed in 1971 with the objectives of upgrading the socioeconomic status of fishermen and developing the fisheries industry, is also involved in marine fish culture, especially in setting up commercial culture projects involving local fishermen.

    In addition to government bodies, some universities in Malaysia also carry out activities related to marine fish culture, especially disease studies.
  • Conference paper

    Research activities and accomplishments of the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department, 1988-1991. 

    CL Marte - 1993 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC/AQD)
    Research studies conducted from 1988 to 1991 focused on breeding, seed production, and farming of thirteen aquaculture species of regional importance. Studies aimed at developing economical feeds, as well as disease prevention and control were undertaken. Guided by the recommendations of ADSEA I (Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia; 8-12 Sept. 1987; Iloilo City, Philippines), workshops to review the previous years' progress and identify specific studies for implementation were held annually since 1989 with the participation of academic institutions, government and private sectors.

    Some 212 studies were implemented. Majority were on tiger shrimp, milkfish, and sea bass. Studies on other species of fishes, crustaceans, molluscs, and seaweeds, as well as larval food organisms, seafarming and economics of hatchery and grow-out culture systems were also undertaken. As of December 1991, 168 studies were completed. Research results were published in 204 scientific journals, proceedings, and other publications. In addition, 27 papers were in press and 63 manuscripts had been submitted.

    That research output is gaining recognition in the international scientific community can be gleaned from the number of papers published in refereed journals covered by Current Contents (CC). Of the 142 papers published in scientific journals in 1988-1991, 115 (81%) appeared in CCcovered journals. This has increased from 58.8% (124 of 211) in 1976-1987. The active participation of the research staff in scientific meetings is equally evident from the number of publications in proceedings of scientific meetings from 1988-1991 (63).
  • Conference paper

    Research on nutrition and feed development at SEAFDEC/AQD. 

    OM Millamena - 1993 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC/AQD)
    The Feed Development Section at SEAFDEC/AQD conducts research on the nutritional requirements and the development of costeffective practical diets for regionally important fishes (milkfish, tilapia, carp, and sea bass) and shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    Macronutrient requirements for protein, lipid, carbohydrate, energy, and optimum dietary protein to energy ratio have been defined. Essential fatty acids required by each species have been identified. Requirement levels for the ten essential amino acids in milkfish and tilapia have been established. In shrimp, requirements for other essential nutrients like phospholipid and cholesterol are known. Dietary calcium and phosphorous requirements of shrimp have been determined. Requirement for water-soluble vitamins and bioavailability of stable forms of vitamin C are being evaluated. However, much work remains to be done on the vitamin and mineral requirements of cultured species.

    The major digestive enzymes, proteases, carbohydrases, and lipases in milkfish have been studied. Further, the apparent digestibility of commonly used feedstuffs were determined in-vivo and in-vitro for milkfish, and presently, for shrimp and sea bass.

    In diet development, the formulation of supplemental grow-out feeds from inexpensive indigenous materials has been emphasized. Likewise, artificial diets for larvae and broodstock are being developed. Effects of feed additives like chemo-attractants and antioxidants were studied. In addition, studies on feed and feedstuff quality control and application of proper processing techniques are being pursued. At present, there are supplemental grow-out diets for the fishes that are commercially viable. Diets for all life stages (grow-out, larval, and broodstock) of shrimp are available. Improvement of these diets will continue as more information on the nutrient requirements are known.
  • Conference paper

    Shrimp seed production at SEAFDEC/AQD. 

    FD Parado-Estepa - 1993 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC/AQD)
    Broodstock management and seed production techniques have evolved from laboratory and verification tests that are conducted to increase survival and growth rates of cultured fish species. The present methods of induced maturation and hatchery rearing of shrimp (Penaeus monodon) used at the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department are examples.
  • Conference paper

    Training and information activities and accomplishments of the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department, 1988-1991. 

    CT Villegas - 1993 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC/AQD)
    One of the mandates of the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department is the development of human resources and dissemination and exchange of information in aquaculture to promote the aquaculture industry in Southeast Asia. The Department receives trainees from SEAFDEC Member Countries (Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore) and other countries for short-term training programs. AQD also disseminates and exchanges information on aquaculture research and technology through symposia, seminars, workshops, video programs, and publications.
  • Conference paper

    Fish health research at SEAFDEC/AQD. 

    CR Lavilla-Pitogo - 1993 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC/AQD)
    Fish pathology as a discipline was of relatively minor importance in the early years of SEAFDEC/AQD because technologies for producing aquaculture commodities were still being developed and high-density fish rearing activities were minimal. With fast adaptation of technologies developed locally and elsewhere and their modification to suit industry needs, disease problems started to occur. Disease develops through the interaction of three important factors: the host, the pathogen or disease agent, and the environment. In most high-density aquaculture rearing units, the environment exerts pressure on the host and favors the pathogen. When the host's defenses are overwhelmed, a disease condition is created which may result in death. Mortalities are often equated to economic losses, and research in fish diseases then becomes significant. Research has the ultimate aim of preventing disease occurrence.
  • Conference paper

    Marine fish broodstock development at SEAFDEC/AQD: status and advances. 

    LMB Garcia - 1993 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC/AQD)
    The success of a fish culture operation depends, in part, on adequate supply of seed for hatchery and grow-out. The culture and husbandry of many of Southeast Asia's marine fish species are constrained by the unreliability of seed supply which are seasonally gathered from coastal areas. To augment the natural seed supply and decrease the dependence on wild catch, SEAFDEC/AQD has undertaken studies to develop a captive source of breeders for some of the economically important marine fish species in the region.

    This paper presents a brief update of the status and recent advances in marine fish broodstock development undertaken by SEAFDEC/AQD.
  • Conference paper

    Larviculture of marine fishes at SEAFDEC/AQD. 

    MN Duray - 1993 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC/AQD)
    The recent glut in the world market for shrimp dealt a heavy blow to the aquaculture industry. It is thus apparent that fish farmers should not depend on only a single species for culture. The popularity and market demand for grouper, sea bass, and snapper make them obvious choices as alternative culture species. On the other hand, milkfish and rabbitfish are cheaper sources of protein and they already contribute substantially to fish production from aquaculture--56.2% from milkfish for example (Rabanal 1988). However, culture and production of marine fishes are hindered by the unpredictable and seasonal seed supply. Research on larviculture at SEAFDEC/AQD are geared towards hatchery production of fry to augment supply from the wild.
  • Conference paper

    Fish nutrition in Thailand: status and constraints. 

    V Havanont - 1993 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC/AQD)
    Aquaculture prior to World War II was limited because marine and freshwater fish catches were still abundant. But shortage of fuel and other necessities led to an increase in food prices including fish. The demand for increased fish production in turn increased the number of people involved in fish farming and the number of species cultured to more than 25. The 13 species most commonly cultured include the walking catfish (Clarias batrachus), snakehead (Channa straitus),striped catfish (Pangasius sutchi), gouramy (Trichogaster pectoralis), sand goby (Oxyeleotris marmoratus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), silver carp (Hypopthalmichthys molitrix), bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), sea bass (Lates calcarifer), grouper (Epinephelus tauvina), and tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    Thailand is a major producer of agricultural products in Asia. Large quantities of raw feed materials are produced and consumed each year. Although aquaculture has been in existence as long as land-based agriculture, it has not kept up in terms of feed development. The feeding methods of most cultured fishes are still largely traditional and based on experience using trash fish, rice bran, and broken rice. It was only recently that aquaculture began using feeds to increase production. In 1986, shrimp culture began evolving toward the semi-intensive and intensive systems, and the demand for compound feeds greatly increased. Commercial feed factories expanded to include shrimp feeds, further developing the feed industry.

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