Shrimp grow-out culture techniques in the Philippines
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The major commercial shrimp species in the Philippines belong to the genus Penaeus and Metapenaeus. The important penaeid shrimps are: P. monodon (giant tiger shrimp or sugpo); P. japonicus and P. semisulcatus (tiger shrimp and bulik or sugpo); and P. merguiensis and P. indicus (white shrimp and Indian white shrimp or putian). The giant tiger shrimp is the major species cultured in ponds while the others are incidental crops. There are 210,000 ha of potential and existing brackishwater ponds in the Philippines (Fig. 1). Because most of these are underdeveloped, present technologies are aimed at improving production or encouraging the development of new areas. Brackishwater fishfarming in the country is primarily centered on milkfish (Chanos chanos) (Table 1). Shrimp used to be merely an incidental crop when postlarvae from the wild enter the milkfish ponds. In the last decade, many traditional milkfish growers recognize the market of shrimps, primarily the giant tiger shrimp. Polyculture of milkfish and shrimp was practiced, and the fishfarmers shifted to shrimp monoculture when price of shrimp in the international market went up. In the mid-70s, SEAFDEC/AQD developed and extended its shrimp hatchery technology, and hatcheries proliferated throughout the country. Seed supply became abundant, encouraging more people to invest in grow-out culture. However, production remained low and inconsistent since the growout technology remains largely an art. When Taiwanese grow-out technology was introduced in the country and research in shrimp was intensified in the Department of Agriculture, University of the Philippines, and SEAFDEC/AQD, new coastal areas were developed particularly in Negros Island where vast tracts of sugarland and rice land were converted to shrimp ponds. Milkfish ponds were also renovated for shrimp culture. There are four shrimp culture levels in the country, namely: traditional, extensive, semi-intensive, and intensive which vary mainly in pond design, stocking density, feeds and feeding, and water management (Table 2). Only the semi-intensive and intensive culture systems are discussed.
Gicos, A. (1993). Shrimp grow-out culture techniques in the Philippines. In C. T. Villegas, M. T. Castaños, & R. B. Lacierda (Eds.), Proceedings of the Aquaculture Workshop for SEAFDEC/AQD Training Alumni, 8-11 September 1992, Iloilo, Philippines (pp. 35-45). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center. http://hdl.handle.net/10862/644
PublisherAquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
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Book | Conference publication
Prawn industry development in the Philippines: proceedings of the National Prawn Industry Development Workshop, 10-13 April 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Aquaculture Department, Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources, & National Prawn Industry Development Workshop - 1984 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
The macronutrient composition of natural food organisms mass cultured as larval feed for fish and prawns OM Millamena, VD Peñaflorida & PF Subosa -
The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh, 1990 - Society of Israeli Aquaculture and Marine BiotechnologyThe macronutrient composition of natural food organisms that are mass cultured as feed for the larval stages of fish and prawns in the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department was determined by chemical analysis. The food organisms included five species of marine phytoplanktons (algae): Chaetoceros calcitrans, Skeletonema costatum, Tetraselmis chui, Chlorella vulgaris and Isochrysis galbana, and two zooplanktons: Artemia sp. nauplii (San Francisco Bay strain) and Brachionus plicatilis. The algal species were grown in batches on Guillard and Ryther media and harvested during the exponential phase of growth using a procedure which preserved cellular integrity and prevented cell lysis. The zooplankton were cultured using standard techniques adopted at the SEAFDEC Larval Food Laboratory. Each species was analyzed for proximate composition (protein, fat, fiber and ash) and for mineral content (calcium and phosphorous). Nitrogen-free extract (NFE) was determined by difference. For the five algal species, the protein, fat and NFE contents varied from 22% to 48%, 2% to 16% and 14% to 24%, respectively. The zooplanktons had higher protein and fat contents than any of the phytoplankton species except I. galbana which had the highest fat content. On the other hand, the phytoplanktons, particularly the diatoms which have a siliceous cell wall, contained significantly higher quantities of inorganic matter (ash). C. vulgaris had the highest fiber content which may be attributed to its cellulosic cell wall.
ArticleJH Primavera -
AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment, 1991 - Springer VerlagThe benefits of intensive farming of the giant tiger prawn Penaeus monodon in the Philippines are discussed in relation to the environmental costs. Ecological effects include mangrove conversion into ponds; use of antibiotics and chemicals leading to drug resistance; dumping of pond effluents which affect neighboring ecosystems; and pumping of groundwater that causes saltwater intrusion and vulnerability to floods. In addition, these effects lead to social costs in the form of reduction in domestic and agricultural water supplies; decreases in the production of foodfish and other food crops; further marginalization of coastal fishermen; displacement of labor; and credit monopoly by big businessmen. Comparative economic analyses of three prawn-farming systems showed that, compared to extensive and intensive culture, semi-intensive farms give the best performance using undiscounted (payback period, return on investment) and discounted (net present value, internal rate of return) economic indicators. With a 20% fluctuation in inputs or selling price intensive farming will no longer be profitable because of the high variable cost. The paper concludes with recommendations for strict enforcement of existing government guidelines (e.g. ban on mangrove conversion); institution of new policies on the use of groundwater, seawater and public credit; diversification of cultured species; and emphasis on semi-intensive farming parallel with brakes on further intensification of prawn farming.