Shrimp hatchery and grow-out operations in Thailand
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Shrimp farming in Thailand has been practiced since more than 50 years ago. This began with the extensive system (traditional method) where shrimp fry are allowed to enter ponds during the high tide, and then harvested after some time. Production then was low and widely fluctuated. After the Department of Fisheries (DOF) successfully spawned and nursed the shrimp (Penaeus, )new techniques were developed and this led to more intensive culture systems. Production of shrimp from aquaculture continuously increased - from 991 t in 1972 to 130,000 t in 1991. The estimated production for 1992 is 150,000 t. The tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) is the most desired species due to its rapid growth (commonly grows to 30 g in 4 months in ponds) and its high export value. It is also the major species cultured especially in the intensive system. The other species are banana shrimp (P. merguiensis), white shrimp (P. indicus), and Metapenaeus ensis. These are normally grown in extensive and semi-intensive culture systems.
Wattanamahard, T. (1993). Shrimp hatchery and grow-out operations in Thailand. In C. T. Villegas, M. T. Castaños, & R. B. Lacierda (Eds.), Proceedings of the Aquaculture Workshop for SEAFDEC/AQD Training Alumni, 8-11 September 1992, Iloilo, Philippines (pp. 9-12). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center. http://hdl.handle.net/10862/645
PublisherAquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
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Book | Conference publication
Prawn industry development in the Philippines: proceedings of the National Prawn Industry Development Workshop, 10-13 April 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Aquaculture Department, Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources, & National Prawn Industry Development Workshop - 1984 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
The macronutrient composition of natural food organisms mass cultured as larval feed for fish and prawns OM Millamena, VD Peñaflorida & PF Subosa -
The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh, 1990 - Society of Israeli Aquaculture and Marine BiotechnologyThe macronutrient composition of natural food organisms that are mass cultured as feed for the larval stages of fish and prawns in the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department was determined by chemical analysis. The food organisms included five species of marine phytoplanktons (algae): Chaetoceros calcitrans, Skeletonema costatum, Tetraselmis chui, Chlorella vulgaris and Isochrysis galbana, and two zooplanktons: Artemia sp. nauplii (San Francisco Bay strain) and Brachionus plicatilis. The algal species were grown in batches on Guillard and Ryther media and harvested during the exponential phase of growth using a procedure which preserved cellular integrity and prevented cell lysis. The zooplankton were cultured using standard techniques adopted at the SEAFDEC Larval Food Laboratory. Each species was analyzed for proximate composition (protein, fat, fiber and ash) and for mineral content (calcium and phosphorous). Nitrogen-free extract (NFE) was determined by difference. For the five algal species, the protein, fat and NFE contents varied from 22% to 48%, 2% to 16% and 14% to 24%, respectively. The zooplanktons had higher protein and fat contents than any of the phytoplankton species except I. galbana which had the highest fat content. On the other hand, the phytoplanktons, particularly the diatoms which have a siliceous cell wall, contained significantly higher quantities of inorganic matter (ash). C. vulgaris had the highest fiber content which may be attributed to its cellulosic cell wall.
ArticleJH Primavera -
AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment, 1991 - Springer VerlagThe benefits of intensive farming of the giant tiger prawn Penaeus monodon in the Philippines are discussed in relation to the environmental costs. Ecological effects include mangrove conversion into ponds; use of antibiotics and chemicals leading to drug resistance; dumping of pond effluents which affect neighboring ecosystems; and pumping of groundwater that causes saltwater intrusion and vulnerability to floods. In addition, these effects lead to social costs in the form of reduction in domestic and agricultural water supplies; decreases in the production of foodfish and other food crops; further marginalization of coastal fishermen; displacement of labor; and credit monopoly by big businessmen. Comparative economic analyses of three prawn-farming systems showed that, compared to extensive and intensive culture, semi-intensive farms give the best performance using undiscounted (payback period, return on investment) and discounted (net present value, internal rate of return) economic indicators. With a 20% fluctuation in inputs or selling price intensive farming will no longer be profitable because of the high variable cost. The paper concludes with recommendations for strict enforcement of existing government guidelines (e.g. ban on mangrove conversion); institution of new policies on the use of groundwater, seawater and public credit; diversification of cultured species; and emphasis on semi-intensive farming parallel with brakes on further intensification of prawn farming.