Status and problems of marine fish seed production in Thailand
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Aquaculture of marine fishes such as sea bass, milkfish, and mullet among others, have been conducted in Thailand for a long time in its provinces along the coast. The fry of these fishes have been collected from natural waters and cultured for the consumption of the family. The traditional method was used in rearing these fishes - flowing seawater into earthen ponds using the bamboo stake trap as the water gate, and culturing trapped fry. Feed was usually the juveniles of other species that come with the water. Needless to say, production was very low. Rearing marine fish in commercial scale is fairly recent, only in the last 30 years. Seed collection, transport, nursery, grow-out culture, and rearing techniques have been experimented by the Department of Fisheries since 1954 at its Prachuab Fisheries Station. The results were then disseminated to fish farmers. The species which are popularly cultured include sea bass (Lates calcarifer), red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus), and grouper (Epinephelus tauvina ).
Pimoljinda, J. (1993). Status and problems of marine fish seed production in Thailand. In C. T. Villegas, M. T. Castaños, & R. B. Lacierda (Eds.), Proceedings of the Aquaculture Workshop for SEAFDEC/AQD Training Alumni, 8-11 September 1992, Iloilo, Philippines (pp. 27-31). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center. http://hdl.handle.net/10862/647
PublisherAquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
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Conference paperB Sirikul, S Luanprida, K Chaiyakam & R Sriprasert - In JV Juario & LV Benitez (Eds.), Seminar on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, 8-12 September 1987, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1988 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterAquaculture practised in Thailand is in the form of pond culture and cage culture in freshwater, brackishwater and coastal areas. The main species cultured include freshwater prawns, brackishwater shrimp, cockles, mussels, and various freshwater and marine finfishes. There is good potential for increased production from freshwater, brackishwater and marine aquaculture. However, the 1983 production of 145 000 mt represents only about 6% of Thailand's total fish production and production in this subsector has fluctuated widely. It will be several years before aquaculture production will contribute substantially to total production. Nonetheless, the culture of high value species of shrimp and fish could contribute significantly to export earnings during the next 5 to 10 years. Conducted primarily by government agencies, research and development are along the lines of increasing seed supply, establishing new culture techniques or improving older ones. The Department of Fisheries (DOF) together with some private companies have ventured into the development and testing of artificial diets for the various cultured species using a variety of indigenous feed stuffs. It is estimated that with adequate investments and appropriate support, aquaculture production will increase from 145 000 mt in 1983 to 378 000 mt in 1991, showing an annual increase of about 13% over this period. Major increases would come from bivalve mariculture (131 000 mt), brackishwater ponds (36 000 mt) freshwater ponds (46 000 mt) and brackishwater cage culture (20 000 mt).
Conference paperL Cheong - In JV Juario & LV Benitez (Eds.), Seminar on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, 8-12 September 1987, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1988 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThe trend of fish production in Singapore is towards increasing contribution from marine and brackishwater aquaculture. Aquaculture production in 1986 represented 6.8% of local fish production. It is envisaged that this sector will provide about 37.5% of production by 1995. Freshwater aquaculture will focus mainly on production of ornamental fish. Production from farming of freshwater food fish is not likely to increase significantly. Commonly farmed marine finfishes are groupers (Epinephelus tauvina), sea bass (Lates calcarifer), and golden snapper (Lutjanus johni). Crustaceans include prawns (Penaeus merguiensis), crabs (Scylla serrata) and mussels (Perna viridis). Of the freshwater finfishes, the most commonly cultured are the grass, silver and bighead carps, red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus hybrid), Lampam jawa (Puntius gonionotus), marble goby (Oxyleotrix marmorata) and the snakehead (Channa sp.). Aquaculture systems use a combination of floating and shorebased techniques. Earthen ponds are utilized for the culture of freshwater carps, floating netcages for marine finfish, ponds and floating netcages for marine crustaceans, and rope culture for mussels. Some research and development studies conducted presently include maturation studies to solve the problem of inconsistent supply of prawn spawners, experiments or use of dry formulated feed to do away with dependency on trash fish as main feed for grow-out marine finfish, and investigations on diseases of prawns under intensive culture. Constraints for large-scale production of finfish seeds lie in the large tank facilities required for producing live feed; for nursery operations, time and manpower required for grading and feeding; for growout systems, disease prevention and control; for prawn production, inconsistent spawner supply; and for mussel production, low consumer demand. The species with the highest potential for fanning in Singapore is the banana prawn, Penaeus merguiensis as its culture can be intensified and high yields can be obtained.
Conference paperAC Emata - In TU Bagarinao & EEC Flores (Eds.), Towards sustainable aquaculture in Southeast Asia and Japan: Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, Iloilo City, Philippines, 26-28 July, 1994, 1995 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterMost of the fish research at SEAFDEC AQD in 1992-1994 was on milkfish. Studies were conducted on year-round spawning through hormonal or environmental manipulation; optimum lipid and protein levels and ration size for captive broodstock; and the influence of spawner age on reproductive performance. The economics of hatchery operations, alone or integrated with broodstock as a commercial enterprise, was assessed. Mass production of larvae was refined with the use of commercial or SEAFDEC-formulated larval diets. Alternative rearing schemes in large tanks and ponds were tried. Hatcheryproduced and wild-caught larvae were compared in terms of growth and production in experimental nursery and grow-out ponds. Supplemental diets for brackishwater grow-out culture were formulated. Studies on broodstock management of grouper Epinephelus spp. included lipid enrichment of the diet and hormonal induction of sex inversion. Seed production techniques were developed but survival rates were low. Grouper culture was found economically feasible in experimental ponds with 'trash' fish as feed. The mangrove red snapper Lutjanus argentimaculatus was successfully induced to spawn with injection of human chorionic gonadotropin. Initial larval rearing trials were successful but survival rates must be improved. Hormonal manipulation of spawning of the Asian sea bass Lates calcarifer allows seed production during most of the year. Photoperiod manipulation leads to maturation of females, but not males, beyond the natural breeding season (April-November). Nursery rearing of 9 mm juveniles is feasible in floating net cages with night lights that attract food zooplankton. The requirements of sea bass for lipid, protein, carbohydrates, and essential amino acids were determined. In the rabbitfish Siganus guttatus, weekly injections of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analogue (LHRHa) sustains milt production for three weeks. Thyroid hormones injected into broodstocks improved the growth of larvae to day 7. Induced spawning techniques for the Asian catfish Clarias macrocephalus were refined by determining the seasonal responsiveness to LHRHa and pimozide injections and testing for pheromonal induction of spontaneous spawning. The optimum insemination rate was determined and egg hatchability was enhanced by removal of the adhesive coat before incubation. Several practical diets for catfish during grow-out culture were tested against 'trash' fish. The broodstock management for bighead carp Aristichthys nobilis was studied. Cage-reared juveniles from cage-reared broodstock showed the best growth. To improve the reproductive performance, the broodstock diets were supplemented with vitamins A, C, and E. Research on tilapias focused on genetics and strain selection. Several strain testing procedures for Nile tilapia were evaluated in their efficiency to detect economically important strain differences. Reference lines were developed from two existing red tilapia strains to measure and reduce the effects of uncontrolled nongenetic variables in strain evaluation experiments with Nile tilapia. The tolerance of two Nile tilapia strains to heavy metals was similar when gauged by the 24-hour and 96-hour lethal concentration and by fish growth, survival, and reproductive performance. In a separate study, four strains of red tilapia showed generally higher seed production when reared in tanks than in cages. Improvements in the feed and feeding management for Nile tilapia were also studied. Intensive tilapia farming and feeding have led to oxygen depletion and fish kills in Sampaloc Lake. To rehabilitate the lake, it is imperative to reduce the farming area from 30 to 6 hectares; stop the use of commercial feeds; and remove the water hyacinths and other debris. Fish kills in Laguna de Bay have also become serious in recent years, and a review of the occurrences, losses, and possible causes is currently being conducted. Studies on the epizootic ulcerative syndrome of snakeheads in Laguna de Bay have yet to pinpoint the pathogen. Skin lesions in tilapias in several ponds and lakes in the country were found to be due to bacteria.