Regional Technical Consultation on the Aquaculture of Penaeus vannamei and other Exotic Shrimps in Southeast Asia
Regional Technical Consultation on the Aquaculture of P. vannamei and Other Exotic Shrimps in Southeast Asia, Manila, Philippines, 1-2 March 2005.The Workshop was funded by SUMA, a DANIDA project based on Vietnam and was held at Hanoi, Vietnam. Experts from Ecuador, Thailand and China, as well as representatives form Malaysia and Indonesia reported on the status of P. vannamei farming in their respective countries. Experts also presented papers on the health status and on the social and economic aspects of exotic shrimp culture in Asia. About 100 participants from Vietnam's Ministry of Fisheries, NAFIQAVED and the private sector attended the workshop.
- The Regional Technical Consultation
- Country Papers
- Discussions and Recommendations
- List of Participants
- Status of shrimp farming in Cambodia
- The present status of Penaeus vannamei and other exotic shrimp culture in Indonesia
- Shrimp farming in Malaysia
- Overview of existing shrimp culture industry and development potential for culture of P. vannamei in Myanmar
- Status of P. vannamei aquaculture in the Philippines
- The culture of Penaeus vannamei and other exotic shrimps in Singapore
- Aquaculture of white shrimp Penaeus vannamei in Thailand
- Shrimp culture in Vietnam
- Status of aquaculture of Penaeus vannamei in China
Meeting report- 2005 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC/AQD)Aquaculture production in Thailand has been practiced for a long time. Thailand has a huge flood plain, long riverine stretches, natural lakes, reservoirs and brackish-water areas along the coastline. On the Gulf of Thailand and Andaman Sea there are approximately 2,600 kms of shoreline. Marine shrimp farming in Thailand has been part of the culture for the last 80 years (Tookwinas, 1994). However, the technology of intensive shrimp farming has expanded significantly along the coastal province in the last two decades. Presently, Thailand has become the leading country in shrimp production in the world market since 1991 (World Shrimp Farming, 2004) with a total production area of approximately 75,000 ha and 30,800 farmers and production of 330,000 tons in 2003. Recent statistics show that 37 percent of shrimp farmers are small operators utilizing a farming area less than 0.8 ha, the area between 0.8–1.6 ha of 28%, the area between 1.6–4.8 ha of 24% and the area over 4.8 ha of 11% (National Statistical Office, 2000). The farming species are Penaeus monodon and P. vannamei. More than 95 percent of marine farming production has been exported frozen, headless and with the shell on. The importing countries are United States, Japan, European Countries, Canada and etc.
Meeting report- 2005 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC/AQD)China is a country with longest history of aquaculture in the world. Comparatively, shrimp culture is a relatively new industry in China. The earliest national production figure of cultured shrimp was 79 metric tons in 1970. It took more than 10 years for the production to reach 10,000 metric tons. The cultured shrimp production reached 10,093 metric tons in 1981. In 1981-1988, China experienced the first golden period of shrimp culture industry development after the full maturation of mass production hatchery technique for shrimp (P. chinensis). The total production of cultured shrimp unbelievably increased to 199,418 metric tons in 1988 from 10,093 metric tons in 1981. However, the good times did not last long. The peak production maintained for 5 years only, ending in 1992 with production of 206,866 metric tons. The serious outbreak of shrimp diseases badly hit China along with other shrimp producers in Asia. This resulted to the drop of cultured shrimp production to 87,856 mt in 1993, 40% of the highest production in 1991 (219,571 mt). The production continued to drop to 63,872 metric tons in 1994. The industry started to recover very slowly in the next 3 years, and regained its production of more than 100,000 tons in 1997 (102,923 mt). The slow recovery in cultured shrimp production in 1995-1998 was mainly due to modification in the culture system and techniques. Since 1998, China has been into a new era of fast growth in cultured shrimp production. The production has been keeping a very fast growth, from 143,086 mt in 1998 to 760,430 mt in 2003. The rapid growth of production during the last several years was mainly due to the rapid expansion of culture of Penaeus vannamei, an exotic shrimp species. Cultured shrimp production in China during 1984-2003. It should be noted that the increase of cultured shrimp production was very abrupt in 2003 in China. It appears unbelievable. Two major reasons could be attributed to it in addition to the expansion of shrimp farming in China in 2003. One is due to the unreported freshwater production of P. vannamei before 2003. It was estimated that production of cultured P. vannamei in freshwater environment reached 160,000 metric tons in China in 2002. This production was not actually included in the total cultured shrimp production of the year. Secondly, it was only in 2003 when brackish and freshwater production of P. vannamei was separately reported.
Meeting report- 2005 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC/AQD)This paper describes the overview of shrimp culture industry and the historical production of Penaeus monodon, P. merguiensis and the P. vannamei. The production of shrimp reduced from 115 metric tonnes in 2002 to 46 metric tonnes in 2004. Imported shrimps to Singapore in year 2003 reached 21,157 metric tonnes and valued at $129.57 millions. Domestic market alone required 16,359 metric tonnes and valued at $106.5 millions. Exported shrimps which maintain at 4,913 metric tonnes are mainly the products from the shrimp processing industry and all the raw materials were imported from other countries. Shrimp culture in Singapore suffered significant losses in the 90s due to the Yellowhead Virus (YHV) and the White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) and the reduction of production was also due to urbanisation. Under the Wholesome Meat and Fish Act, the existing laws and regulations are to ensure wholesome food safety. Sampling and testing of all type of fish and seafood products for preservatives as well as contaminants such as heavy metals and drug residues are carried out regularly. All imports of fish products shall comply with prevailing regulations laid down by the Agri-Food & Veterinary Authority of Singapore (AVA). Culture of P. vannamei commenced in 2002 and majority of the fry were purchased from Taiwan. The grow-out culture areas calculated at about 3 hectares and only 8 metric tonnes of live P. vannamei were produced. The labour and employment generated in shrimp culture are limited by less than 10 persons. R&D activities on P.vannamei and other exotic shrimps are not well established, only the monitoring of shrimp production on coastal areas and fishing catch for occurrence of exotic species have been investigated. The field survey of Penaeus vannamei culture that was conducted on two shrimp farms (Round concrete pond system and rectangular concrete pond system) showed the stocking biomass at 185 pcs/m3 and 120 pcs/m3, respectively. At the end of the 2-month culture period, the mean body weight of the shrimps reached 10g with the round pond with 60% survival rate and the rectangular pond with 72% survival rate. The biomass of the round pond was at 2.6 kg/m3 while the rectangular pond was 1.2 kg/m3. The results from both systems indicate the potential of P. vannamei culture in this region.
Meeting report- 2005 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC/AQD)Shrimp industry in the Philippines refers only to P. monodon, the only penaeid species being exported abroad. It is grown almost all over the country from Northern Luzon to Southernmost part of Mindanao. The culture of tiger prawn locally known as “sugpo” started as a secondary species since only small quantity could be harvested with milkfish. Although growing of this shrimp could be as old as milkfish, it was only in 1951 when it was considered as primary species. Dependent on seed stocks from the natural wild fry, it is on this year when the first propagation of P. monodon in brackishwater grow out pond was documented. Its full commercialization, however, was realized in the 1980’s where it had to wait for the hatchery technology in order to meet the national production demand. Below is the development history of the tiger prawn industry in the Philippines.
Meeting report- 2005 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC/AQD)In the South-Western part of the country, Cambodia has 435 km coastline in the Gulf of Thailand, which stretches between the Vietnamese borders in the South to the Thai border in the West. The fisheries sector plays a vital function in Cambodia's food supply, particularly the poor. It is also important for Cambodia's national economy that most national incomes come from this sector through exploitation and exportation. According to the latest official data recorded by the Department of Fisheries (DoF), the total commercial fisheries production in 2002 was 424,400 metric tons, which included the small scale and family scale freshwater fisheries and aquaculture production, except crocodile culture (DoF, 2003). In this case, freshwater fish capture dominates the production, which accounted for 85% of the total production in 2002, while marine capture fisheries was 11%. The total aquaculture production represented only more than 4%. Even fish production increased in fish capture fisheries. The increasing production trend of the capture fisheries indicates overexploitation of fishery resources, hence, there is a need to restore fishery resources. To address this, local fishers need alternative jobs in order to enhance their livelihood and encourage them to minimize over fishing and also from destructive fishing practices. One of the options also is to promote aquaculture.
Overview of existing shrimp culture industry and development potential for culture of P. vannamei in Myanmar. - 2005 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC/AQD)Shrimp culture in the form of traditional method commenced in Myanmar in 1970s in the western coastal areas. The culture system was trap and hold method. Natural post-larvae of Penaeus monodon were trapped into the ponds during the high tide period. There were no inputs in terms of pond preparation, eradication of predators, water fertilization, feeding, etc. However, 30 to 50 kilograms of large size of shrimps were harvested. As the ponds were usually as large as 50 to 100 hectares, the shrimp production could provide more than enough money for the shrimp farmers. Having no laws concerned with aquaculture, those shrimp ponds existed as illegal ponds. Only in 2000 that the State Level Committee, which is the Shrimp Aquaculture Development Committee was formulated and implemented a three-year project plan of the shrimp aquaculture development in Myanmar. According to that plan existing shrimp pond area of 26978 hectares was to increase in area of up to 48000 hectares. After the project in 2003, the shrimp pond area became 79984 hectares but it consisted of 2100 hectares of semi-intensive or intensive shrimp ponds. The production figure from shrimp culture was not properly registered.
Meeting report- 2005 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC/AQD)Malaysia has a long coastline of 4,055 kilometers (km), of which 1,640 km is in Peninsular Malaysia and 2,415 km is in the state of Sabah and Sarawak. With the declaration of the 200 miles Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), the total fishing area of Malaysia has expended to 160,000 square nautical miles. Given this large fishing area, fisheries are a significant sector in the Malaysian economy. The sector produced 1.5 million mt of fish valued at about RM5 B in 2003. The marine fisheries production was 1.3 million mt valued at RM4 B, constituting 1.4 % of the Gross Domestic Production (GDP). The aquaculture production was 196,874 mt valued at over RM1.2 B constituting only 13% of the total fisheries production. In the case of the marine capture fisheries, the bulk of the landings came from trawl nets (57%), purse-seine nets (21%) and traditional gerars (22%). Whereas in aquaculture, cockles (Anadara granosa) is the dominant harvest, accounting for 37% of the total aquaculture production. With regard to employment, the fishing industry involves about 89,400 fishermen and 21,100 aquaculturists giving a total of 110,500 people. In 2002, Malaysia exported an estimated 198,892 mt of fisheries products valued at RM1.5B. The bulk of the exports were higher for chilled fresh fish and frozen crustaceans mainly shrimps to Japan, Singapore and USA. At the same time, Malaysia imported an estimated 353,794 mt from neighboring country Thailand valued at RM1.3 B. In terms of quantity, Malaysia was a net importer of fish but in terms of value there was a net gain in foreign exchange to the tune of RM156 M. Traditionally, the mainstay or backbone of the Malaysian fisheries is the inshore sub-sector both in terms of production and socio-economic considerations. However, the inshore sub-sector has reached a saturation point as evidenced by declining catch rates in recent years. This is coupled with substantial fisheries resources in the EEZ waters of Malaysia and vast potentials for aquaculture development in the country. Focus of development has been shifted towards offshore fisheries and aquaculture.
Meeting report- 2005 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC/AQD)Shrimp culture is playing an important role in the contribution of foreign exchange earnings in Indonesia. However, for two decades, particularly in 1985 to 1994 the production of shrimp (P. monodon) had drastically decreased from 180,000 mt in 1984 to 35,058 mt in 1994, although total production of shrimp from both capture and aquaculture increased in the next 10 years, obtaining annual growth rate of 3.50%, from 170,563 mt in 1993 up to 477,332 mt in 2003. Production from aquaculture itself has merely grown to 2.80%. This was due to disease problem caused mainly by viral diseases called Monodon Baculovirus (MBV) and White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV), which started in 2000. The total shrimp export showed a significant increase in ten years for both volume and value, with growth rate of 4.91% for volume and 0.78% for value, gaining 98.569 mt worth US $ 867,703 in 1993 to 137,636 metric tonnes worth US $ 850,222 in 2003. Taking into account that shrimp culture is one of the prime commodities, potential to increase foreign exchange earnings, the Government has made some efforts to cope with disease problems besetting the industry. In this regard, the Director General of Aquaculture, Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (DGA-MOMAF) is considering other shrimp culture species as alternative. In 2000, DGA made a business breakthrough by giving license to the private sectors to import broodstock and post larvae of P. vannamei into the country. Since then, the P. vannamei culture has been practiced in potential provinces in Indonesia. The success story of P. vannamei culture has encouraged many farmers who used to culture P. monodon, to try the new shrimp species. This increased shrimp aquaculture production, contributing 37.11 % to national production in 1999 and 41.2 % in 2003.