Biotechnological researches at the Prefectural Fisheries Experimental Station in Japan
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Biotechnological studies have been conducted in 46 Prefectural Experimental Stations in Japan in 1991. In 41 of these, research focused on chromosome set manipulation including triploidy for sterilization and gynogenesis for sex control. Practical application of biotechnology for culture of each species is the main interest because each prefecture has its own project for promoting the local fisheries industry. Therefore, the commodities being studied are of commercial importance comprising of about 40 species.The culture production of Japan in 1988 totaled 1,426,000 tons, 95% of which consisted of 10 species. Biotechnology is not widely used since most seeds are not from hatcheries, but from the wild. Recently, however, promising results on the study of sex determination mechanism in the Japanese flounder have been adopted for actual seed production. This has attracted attention as an approach to mass production of all-female seedlings.
Kato, T. (1994). Biotechnological researches at the Prefectural Fisheries Experimental Station in Japan. In F. Lacanilao, R. M. Coloso, & G. F. Quinitio (Eds.), Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia and Prospects for Seafarming and Searanching; 19-23 August 1991; Iloilo City, Philippines. (pp. 68-74). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center. http://hdl.handle.net/10862/102
PublisherAquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
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Conference paperK Fukusho - In TU Bagarinao & EEC Flores (Eds.), Towards sustainable aquaculture in Southeast Asia and Japan: Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, Iloilo City, Philippines, 26-28 July, 1994, 1995 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterAquaculture production in Japan in 1993 was 1,351,000 tons, 15.6% of the total fisheries production. About 93.6% came from mariculture and 6.4% from freshwater aquaculture. The per cent contribution of aquaculture to total production has increased in recent years but partly because marine fisheries,especially of sardine and pollack, have decreased. Aquaculture has reached a plateau, and decreased slightly between 1992 and 1993. Diverse marine and freshwater species are cultured in Japan — various fishes, crustaceans, mollusks, seaweeds, sea squirt, sea urchin, and others. Research and development in mariculture focus on finding substitutes for animal protein in feeds, improvement of fish quality, protection of the culture environment, use of offshore floating culture systems, and protection from diseases. Research in freshwater aquaculture has expanded to include recreational fishing, the propagation and preservation of endangered species, and the construction of fish ladders for salmonids and other migratory species.
Conference paperK Yuasa, T Mekata & J Sato - In RV Pakingking Jr., EGT de Jesus-Ayson & BO Acosta (Eds.), Addressing Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND) and Other Transboundary Diseases for Improved Aquatic … Diseases for Improved Aquatic Animal Health in Southeast Asia, 22-24 February 2016, Makati City, Philippines, 2016 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThe gross product from sea culture in Japan was about USD 3.4 billion in 2013 with kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus constituting 2% of the total production. In recent years, annual shrimp production has reached about 1,600 metric tons (MT) and 99% of the species produced comprised of M. japonicus. Kuruma shrimp is highly traded at market price of USD 40-60 per kg. At present, 65% of cultured kuruma shrimp are produced in Okinawa and Kagoshima prefectures. To increase or maintain kuruma shrimp fishery in the natural environment, 200 million fry have been annually released into the sea along the coast of Japan. In addition, whiteleg shrimp Penaeus vannamei has also been produced in a private farm since 2007 with an annual production of approximately 40 MT. Recently, the number of farms that ventured into whiteleg shrimp culture has increased. The most serious obstacle faced by the kuruma shrimp industry in Japan in the 1990s was the outbreaks of white spot disease (WSD) caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The seed production of kuruma shrimp has been dependent on captured wild broodstocks. However, broodstocks obtained from the wild could be carriers of WSSV that may vertically transmit the virus to fertilized eggs. To prevent the spread of WSD, measures for disinfecting WSSV-infected fertilized eggs of shrimp and detection of the causative virus by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have been developed. Lately, with the application of an improved technology for broodstock rearing, production losses ascribed to WSD have significantly decreased because majority of the hatcheries have been using specific WSSV-free shrimps. In the last decade, in kuruma shrimp hatcheries and grow-out ponds, vibriosis due to Vibrio penaeicida has been frequently encountered. Fusariosis caused by Fusarium solani is also common. The first cases of vibriosis and fusariosis in Japan occurred in 1973 and 1972, respectively. Taking the case of Okinawa prefecture as example, production losses in 2005 due to vibriosis and fusariosis were 66% and 34%, respectively. Cleaning of the pond bottom prior to the commencement of grow-out culture has been recommended to prevent vibriosis. Some antibiotics have also been orally administered to reduce mortality of shrimps affected by vibriosis. However, farmers have been properly cautioned regarding their use as emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria could consequently arise. Because no practical treatment for fusariosis is currently available, farmers either dispose or harvest infected shrimps followed by disinfection of ponds with 10 ppm chlorine. Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) has not yet been detected in Japan. As kuruma shrimp is also susceptible to the disease, the Government of Japan plans to designate AHPND as Specific Disease. Under Japanese law, enlistment of AHPND as a quarantinable disease will also be instituted to prevent the introduction of this disease into Japanese hatcheries and grow-out facilities. However, in case an AHPND outbreak inadvertently occurs, Prefectural Fisheries Experimental Stations (PES) could immediately conduct preliminary diagnosis using the AP4 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. In addition, confirmatory diagnosis using AP4 nested PCR method and sequencing could be conducted at the National Research Institute of Aquaculture (NRIA), a central laboratory for aquatic animal health. NRIA s task is not only to perform confirmatory diagnosis but likewise disseminate diagnostic techniques to the staff of the National Quarantine and PES.
Conference paperT Sugaya - In JH Primavera, ET Quinitio & MR Eguia (Eds.), Proceedings of the Regional Technical Consultation on Stock Enhancement for Threatened Species of International Concern, Iloilo City, Philippines, 13-15 July 2005, 2006 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterIn the 1960s, the Japanese economy was starting to industrialize. The rapid increase in business investment in new factories and equipment stimulated a yearly economic growth rate of approximately 12% (METI 1970). However, these developments have disrupted coastal landscapes through land reclamation and industrial effluents (Fishery Agency 1980a). Furthermore, overfishing has accelerated with increased consumer spending and demand for fish protein. Consequently, coastal fish resources such as red sea bream (Pagrus major), kuruma prawn (Marsupenaeus japonicus) and swimming crab (Portunus trituberculatus) have been depleted and income of coastal fisherfolk has decreased (Fishery Agency, 1980). Under such conditions, the Japanese government initiated the Stock Enhancement Program in 1963 (Fishery Agency, 1980; Imamura, 1999). The program initially targeted red sea bream and kuruma prawn in the Seto Inland Sea in southern Japan which covers almost 3,000 islands (Imamura, 1999). Because the fundamental concept of stock enhancement programs was to compensate juvenile loss caused by high larval mortality in the ocean, development of mass juvenile production techniques was emphasized (Fishery Agency 1980a; Matsuoka, 1989). Therefore, the release of juveniles became a typical form of stock enhancement in Japan. The current number of target species for stock enhancement has increased to almost 80 species. Stock enhancement is undertaken by both the national government and local governments together with conservation of fishing ground and regulation of fish catches for resource management (Resource Association 1983a; Imamura 1999; Fishery Agency 2000; JASFA 2003a). This article reports the present status of stock enhancement in Japan from the organizational and technical viewpoints.