This volume of ADSEA '91 Proceedings contains review papers on aquaculture research and development as well as regional and country experiences. Reviews SEAFDEC/AQD research on sea bass, grouper, milkfish, rabbitfish, mullet, tilapia, carp, catfish, shrimps, bivalves, and seaweeds from 1988 to 1991; aquaculture development and prospects for seafarming and sea ranching in Japan, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand from 1988 to 1991; and ecological, social and economic considerations for seafarming and sea ranching.

Recent Submissions

  • Conference paper

    Aquaculture developments in the Philippines with emphasis on tilapias and seaweeds 

    RD Guerrero III - In F Lacanilao, RM Coloso & GF Quinitio (Eds.), Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia and Prospects for Seafarming and Searanching; 19-23 August 1991; Iloilo City, Philippines., 1994 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    Significant developments in the culture of tilapias and seaweeds in the Philippines for 1988-1991 are reviewed. The country was the top producer of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and red seaweed, Eucheuma sp., in the world during the period. Intensification of cage and pond culture of tilapia in freshwater with artificial feeding was prevalent. The National Tilapia Production Program was launched in 1990 and is being implemented in 26 sites of 12 regions in the country. Culture of sex-inversed tilapias (O. niloticus and O. niloticus x O. mossambicus hybrids) in freshwater cages, brackishwater ponds, and sea cages was pilot-tested for the first time. For seaweeds, studies were made on the culture of other economically-important species such as Gracilaria sp. and Porphyra sp. A trial on the integrated searanching of abalones (Haliotis sp.) and giant clams (Tridacna sp.) with Euchema was also conducted.
  • Conference paper

    Seafarming and searanching development in the Philippines 

    MN Delmendo - In F Lacanilao, RM Coloso & GF Quinitio (Eds.), Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia and Prospects for Seafarming and Searanching; 19-23 August 1991; Iloilo City, Philippines., 1994 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    The paper reviews developments in Seafarming and searanching in the Philippines. Seafarming activities concentrated on seaweeds and molluscs, technology for which are already widely practiced. In Seafarming of oysters and mussels, technology is mature but only applied in traditional sites. As such, the quality of products and consumption is low due to known pollution of oyster and mussel farming areas. Seafarming of giant clams is just beginning. Hatchery techniques of producing juveniles are being refined for mass production and seeding of reef areas to enhance giant clam population. Seafarming of marine fishes is also practiced but constrained by the lack of seed stock. Sea cage fanning operators mainly depend on wild-caught fry and juveniles although the hatchery technology for sea bass has been developed. There is more research work to be done to mass-produce fry and juveniles for Seafarming of other fish species.

    Seafarming and searanching appear to be the future major means of supplementing the production of animal protein by year 2000 as arable land continues to dwindle. Declining arable land area would not be sufficient to produce the food needs of the increasing population.

    There is great potential for Seafarming and searanching to enhance coastal resources and produce more food. However, there is a need to provide stronger legal and institutional support for these activities to sustain development efforts.
  • Conference paper

    Prospects of seafarming through the Fisheries Sector Program (Philippines) 

    SM Aypa - In F Lacanilao, RM Coloso & GF Quinitio (Eds.), Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia and Prospects for Seafarming and Searanching; 19-23 August 1991; Iloilo City, Philippines., 1994 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    The status and problems confronting the fisheries sector are discussed. An exploratory discussion of the five-year Fisheries Sector Program addressed on aquatic resources regeneration, conservation, and sustained management of coastal fisheries, production intensification in aquaculture within limits of ecological balance, and commercial fishing away from over-fished areas into the deeper water is made. Seafarming as one of the alternative livelihood for a large number of coastal subsistence fishermen is emphasized particularly in the 12 priority bays under the program to uplift their economic condition. Rapid resources assessment in the 3 priority bays during the first year of the program implementation pinpointed existing aquaculture practices, potential sites for Seafarming and recommended species for culture. The credit, extension services, and training components of the program are envisioned to enhance Seafarming development in the country.
  • Conference paper

    Economic and social considerations in seafarming and searanching 

    KC Chong - In F Lacanilao, RM Coloso & GF Quinitio (Eds.), Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia and Prospects for Seafarming and Searanching; 19-23 August 1991; Iloilo City, Philippines., 1994 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    Sustainable development of seafarming and searanching calls for careful planning. Investments in seafarming must take into account environmental, biotechnological, and socioeconomic considerations. Investment planning must be carefully examined as well as the physical design of production systems such that its negative impact is minimized and the positive impact is accentuated.Supply from the wild may not be expected to grow much higher than present levels. Many of the major commercially valuable fisheries are now overfished at or close to their respective minimum sustainable yield levels. Seafarming can attract some of the fishermen out of overcrowded fisheries.Production cost of seafarming produce is a major concern which has to be examined closely if these are to compete with and gradually supplant the supply of fish from the wild. Feed is one of the main inhibiting factors, hence, efficient consideration calls for constantly improving feed conversion and productivity per unit input.Existing government policies are not clear nor conducive to seafarming in terms of use rights of coastal waters. To attract potential investors into seafarming, governments are encouraged to review existing policies governing use rights to coastal waters, package the necessary technology consistent with the country's wage and price structure, and develop investment profile for seafarming opportunities using conservative criteria.
  • Conference paper

    Seafarming and searanching in Singapore 

    R Chou - In F Lacanilao, RM Coloso & GF Quinitio (Eds.), Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia and Prospects for Seafarming and Searanching; 19-23 August 1991; Iloilo City, Philippines., 1994 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    Seafarming in Singapore is described in detail, covering farm design and structure, site selection criteria, current farm practices, farm operation and maintenance, species for culture, and diseases and their control.Searanching has not been done in Singapore. Results of related work on fish stocking is briefly reported.
  • Conference paper

    Seaweed: Gracilaria 

    AQ Hurtado-Ponce - In F Lacanilao, RM Coloso & GF Quinitio (Eds.), Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia and Prospects for Seafarming and Searanching; 19-23 August 1991; Iloilo City, Philippines., 1994 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    This paper reviews the studies on Gracilaria/Gracilariopsis conducted from 1988 to 1991 by the Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center. It includes 114 species of macrobenthic algae collected in Panay, the nomenclature of Gracilariopsis heteroclada previously described as Gracilaria sp., and the biology, ecology, and farming systems of Gracilariopsis. Agar quality of the different species of Gracilaria and the effect of seasonal variation on the quality and quantity of agar produced from Gracilariopsis heteroclada were also studied.
  • Conference paper

    Overview of aquaculture development in Southeast Asia 

    HR Rabanal - In F Lacanilao, RM Coloso & GF Quinitio (Eds.), Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia and Prospects for Seafarming and Searanching; 19-23 August 1991; Iloilo City, Philippines., 1994 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    The nine countries in Southeast Asia occupy a land area of 1.85% with a population of 7.4% in the world. In 1991, these countries had a total fisheries production of 10.2 million tons or 10.5% of the world total of 96.9 million tons. In aquaculture in 1990, world total production attained 15.3 million tons (15.7% of total world fisheries production) while the Southeast Asian countries produced 1.7 million tons (11 % of total world aquaculture production). The total fisheries production in Southeast Asia which is mainly capture fisheries has continued to increase gradually by about 3.3% from 1986 to 1990 while aquaculture production has been increasing at the rate of over 8.4% during this period.The major areas for aquaculture in Southeast Asia include inland freshwaters, brackishwaters, and marine waters. Various systems exist in the region including ponds, pens and cages, delimited or fenced open water areas, and culture integrated with other production activities. Highest potential is in Seafarming while ranching is a recent innovation. The species being cultured in the region consist of about 50 fishes, 10 crustaceans, 10 molluscs, 5 seaweeds, and 5 miscellaneous aquatic vertebrates.Aquaculture will increasingly supply food and industrial products considering the worldwide levelling off of capture fisheries production. Southeast Asia has the potential to contribute substantially to this need. Support for the industry inspite of this need is inadequate to meet its technical, economic, and management problems. A sound technological base through research and training and extension needs to be pursued vigorously.
  • Conference paper

    Shrimps 

    FD Parado-Estepa - In F Lacanilao, RM Coloso & GF Quinitio (Eds.), Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia and Prospects for Seafarming and Searanching; 19-23 August 1991; Iloilo City, Philippines., 1994 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    During 1988-1991, research at the Aquaculture Department of SEAFDEC on the shrimp Penaeus monodon has been directed towards a) the development of captive broodstock, b) the refinement of hatchery and grow-out techniques, c) the development of diets for the various stages of culture, and d) the prevention and control of diseases. Biochemical, morphological, and histological characterization of the male and female reproductive systems were conducted to provide basic information for the development of techniques for pond-reared broodstock. Studies on the refinement of hatchery techniques included determination of the environmental and feeding requirements of larvae and postlarvae to serve as basis for the improvement of management practices. Refinement of grow-out techniques included studies on the physiological response of this species to vital environmental factors and studies on the role of natural food organisms during culture. Nutrition studies have resulted in the formulation, testing, and improvement of diets for broodstock, larvae and postlarvae, juveniles, and subadult shrimps. Methods of prevention and control of the luminous bacterial disease, chronic soft shell syndrome, aflatoxicosis, monodon baculovirus (MBV) infection, and other relevant diseases have been investigated through the identification of causative agents and bioassay of possible chemo-therapeutants.

    Studies to improve larval rearing of alternative shrimp species such as P. indicus, P. merguiensis, and P. japonicus have likewise been pursued. Nutritional requirements of the white shrimp species were evaluated to develop suitable formulated feeds for the different culture stages.
  • Conference paper

    Seafarming and searanching in Thailand 

    P Sungkasem & S Tookwinas - In F Lacanilao, RM Coloso & GF Quinitio (Eds.), Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia and Prospects for Seafarming and Searanching; 19-23 August 1991; Iloilo City, Philippines., 1994 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    Seafarming is undertaken in the coastal sublittoral zone. Different marine organisms such as molluscs, estuarine fishes, shrimps (pen culture), and seaweeds are cultured along the coast of Thailand. Seafarming, especially for mollusc, is the main activity in Thailand. The important species are blood cockle, oyster, green mussel, and pearl oyster. In 1988, production was approximately 51,000 metric tons in a culture area of 2,252 hectares.Artificial reefs have been constructed in Thailand since 1987 to enhance coastal habitats. Larvae of marine organisms have also been restocked in the artificial reef area.
  • Book | Conference publication

    Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia and Prospects for Seafarming and Searanching, 19-23 August 1991, Iloilo City, Philippines 

    F Lacanilao, RM Coloso & GF Quinitio (Eds.) - 1994 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    Documents the presentations at ADSEA '91, the 2nd Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia. ADSEA '91 includes reviews of the status of the researches conducted by Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Aquaculture Department (SEAFDEC/AQD) on the following cultured species sea bass, groupers, snappers, milkfish, rabbitfish, mullet, tilapia, carp, catfish, bivalves and the seaweed Gracilaria. Topics on aquaculture development in Southeast Asia and Japan were also discussed. The status and development of seafarming and searanching in different SEAFDEC member countries and their ecological, social and economic implications were also presented. The contributions of the selected participants during the meeting which are contained in this volume are cited individually.
  • Conference paper

    Sea bass, groupers and snappers 

    MN Duray - In F Lacanilao, RM Coloso & GF Quinitio (Eds.), Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia and Prospects for Seafarming and Searanching; 19-23 August 1991; Iloilo City, Philippines., 1994 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    Studies on sea bass (Lates calcarifer) broodstock were directed at techniques to maximize egg production. Now known are the: optimum luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analogue (LHRHa) dose range to induce spawning, optimum egg size responsive to LHRHa induction, appropriate time for induction, proper storage conditions for LHRHa, and induction of spermiation in males. Gonadal maturation and spawning are successfully induced by LHRHa and/or 17 alphamethyltestosterone. An experiment on photoperiodic induction of sexual maturation is being conducted to produce seed year round. Increased information on larval morphology and physiology of sea bass led to improvements in feeding strategies and transport techniques. Studies on nutrient requirements and practical diets are currently being undertaken for different stages/sizes of sea bass. An economic assessment found an integrated sea bass production system viable.

    Studies on groupers (Epinephelus spp.) have been geared towards broodstock development including induction of sex inversion by hormonal control, intraspecific interaction, and sex control using synthetic anabolic steroids. Spontaneous maturation and successive spawnings of captive Epinephelus suillus were achieved in 1990. Larval rearing techniques used for other marine fish species were tried but with limited success. Culture techniques in ponds and floating cages using SEAFDEC-formulated diets or commercial pellets are being developed.

    Studies on snappers (Lutjanus spp.) have been started with the identification of species common in Panay Island.
  • Other

    ADSEA '91-Preliminary pages 

    F Lacanilao, RM Coloso & GF Quinitio (Eds.) - In F Lacanilao, RM Coloso & GF Quinitio (Eds.), Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia and Prospects for Seafarming and Searanching; 19-23 August 1991; Iloilo City, Philippines., 1994 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    Cover page, title page and table of contents
  • Conference paper

    Ecological impacts of seafarming and searanching 

    JL Munro - In F Lacanilao, RM Coloso & GF Quinitio (Eds.), Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia and Prospects for Seafarming and Searanching; 19-23 August 1991; Iloilo City, Philippines., 1994 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    Seafarming has ecological effects such as pollution and eutrophication of adjacent areas by excess food or by feces or modification of habitats by physical structures. More subtle effects on the communities result from heavy consumption of plankton or benthos by caged or enclosed farmed organisms and consequent reduction of availability of food to adjacent natural communities. Seapens, in which monocultures are reared, develop a radically different benthos from that in adjacent areas. Seafarms can become focal points from which pathogens and parasites can be spread.Searanching, in which stocks are enhanced by the addition of hatchery-reared recruits, has the potential to cause significant changes in the composition and stability of marine communities. Enhanced recruitment of a species will have negative effects on both its prey and its competitors but will enhance the biomass of its predators.Enhanced recruitment of a stock of apex predators will decrease the biomass of its prey and cause changes in the composition of the community. The effects of searanching are amenable to modelling, and the likely effects of proposed searanching schemes should be examined before these are implemented.The magnitude of the effects of searanching will depend on the degree to which the area is naturally saturated with recruits of that species and on the rate of exploitation. Poor management of the stock, resulting in under- or over-exploitation, will have highly destabilizing effects on the communities.Seafarming or searanching can have negative effects on the gene pools of natural stocks and result in changes in life histories or in behavior.
  • Conference paper

    Tilapia, carp and catfish 

    ZU Basiao - In F Lacanilao, RM Coloso & GF Quinitio (Eds.), Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia and Prospects for Seafarming and Searanching; 19-23 August 1991; Iloilo City, Philippines., 1994 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    Research activities on tilapia focused on Oreochromis niloticus and red tilapia. Experiments include developing new experimental and statistical procedures for strain evaluation, development of a stable reference strain, development of a high-yield red tilapia strain through introgressive hybridization, comparison of fish growth in different environments relevant to aquaculture, development of an index for routine monitoring of salinity tolerance of existing tilapia strains/experimental stocks, evaluation of nutritional requirements of red tilapia, and determination of heavy metal contents of tilapia in Laguna de Bay, Luzon, Philippines. Research on carp (Aristichthys nobilis) and catfish (Clarias macrocephalus) were focused on improvement of methods for induced spawning, development of seed production techniques, and nutritional requirement of bighead carp fry and broodstock.

    Research on carp (Aristichthys nobilis) and catfish (Clarias macrocephalus) were focused on improvement of methods for induced spawning, development of seed production techniques, and nutritional requirement of bighead carp fry and broodstock.
  • Conference paper

    Overview of seafarming and searanching technology in Japan 

    S Umezawa - In F Lacanilao, RM Coloso & GF Quinitio (Eds.), Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia and Prospects for Seafarming and Searanching; 19-23 August 1991; Iloilo City, Philippines., 1994 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    In 1989, artificial seed production was attained in 37 species of fishes, 16 species of Crustacea, 25 species of shellfishes, and 9 species of other fishery animals in Japan. Eighty species of fishery animal seed, including natural and artificial production, were released in natural fishery grounds during this year. The total mariculture production was 1.3 million tons. This composed of 18% fish, 35% shellfish, 46% seaweed, and 1% of other fishery animals.In recent years, Japan achieved some success in Seafarming and searanching projects. Among these are searanching of Japanese scallop in northern Japan and acoustic habituation system of red sea bream. Searanching of striped jack using artificial seed is also explained.
  • Conference paper

    Bivalves 

    WG Gallardo - In F Lacanilao, RM Coloso & GF Quinitio (Eds.), Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia and Prospects for Seafarming and Searanching; 19-23 August 1991; Iloilo City, Philippines., 1994 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    Mollusc research at the Aquaculture Department of the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center from 1989 to 1991 was primarily focused on the highly exploited window-pane oyster, Placuna placenta Linnaeus. Other species studied were the saddle-shaped oyster, Placuna sella, the slipper-shaped oyster, Crassostrea iredalei, and the green mussel, Perna viridis. Research on P. placenta aimed to develop techniques in seed production (broodstock maturation and induced spawning), transplantation, and stock assessment and restocking of depleted natural beds. The annual variations in the reproductive activity, condition index, and proximate composition of P. sella were determined. A socioeconomic study of oyster (C. iredalei) and mussel (P. viridis) farming practices in western Visayas, central Philippines is on-going and will provide information on current culture methods and their profitability. An inventory of mollusc researches conducted in the Philippines has been done and the culture techniques and research gaps are being reviewed and identified. This information will guide further research on molluscs in the Philippines.
  • Conference paper

    Coastal aquaculture in Thailand 

    S Tookwinas, N Srichantulk & C Choongan - In F Lacanilao, RM Coloso & GF Quinitio (Eds.), Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia and Prospects for Seafarming and Searanching; 19-23 August 1991; Iloilo City, Philippines., 1994 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    The coastal area has been explored for aquaculture and coastal aquaculture has expanded quite rapidly in Thailand. The economically important culture species are shrimp (Penaeus monodon), sea bass (Lates calcarifer), and two species of grouper (Epinephelus malabaricus and L. salmoides). The area for marine shrimp culture in 1989 was around 78,209 hectares with a production of 100,000 tons. Approximately 40% of these ponds, by area, is under intensive shrimp cultivation. The average survival rate was reported to be 40-80% with a production of 6 tons per hectare. Sea bass and grouper are mainly cultured in cages. Two cage sizes are used: 10 x 10 x 2 and 5 x 5 x 2 meters. In 1988, the production was about 1,034 and 357 tons for sea bass and grouper, respectively.
  • Conference paper

    Aquaculture development in Singapore 

    R Chou - In F Lacanilao, RM Coloso & GF Quinitio (Eds.), Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia and Prospects for Seafarming and Searanching; 19-23 August 1991; Iloilo City, Philippines., 1994 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    Aquaculture production in Singapore is mainly from Seafarming and is about 2% of total fish consumed. At present, there are 79 licensed floating fish farms located in the East and West Johor Straits that culture popular species like sea bass (Lates calcarifer) and estuarine grouper (Epinephelus tauvina). Aquaculture development is geared towards the establishment of highly intensive fish farms such as land-based systems in agrotechnology parks, smaller brackishwater pond systems, and large-scale floating systems in designated sea areas. Research and development on improvement of farming techniques are on-going.Freshwater aquaculture is focused on ornamental fish production. This is a high value trade with yearly growth of 11 % in 1986-1990. Development of intensive farming systems, improvements in water quality management, disease control, and quarantine are considered important. Research concentrates on breeding and genetics.
  • Conference paper

    Milkfish, rabbitfish and mullet 

    AC Emata - In F Lacanilao, RM Coloso & GF Quinitio (Eds.), Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia and Prospects for Seafarming and Searanching; 19-23 August 1991; Iloilo City, Philippines., 1994 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    This paper reviews studies conducted on milkfish (Chanos chanos), rabbitfish (Siganus guttatus), and mullet (Mugil cephalus) at the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department from 1968 to 1991. Milkfish studies focused on hormonal induction of off-season gonadal maturation, dietary manipulation of milkfish broodstock to improve egg and larval quality, improvement of larval rearing techniques for mass fry production and technology transfer to the private sector, and search for a low-cost, practical diet for milkfish and a supplemental diet to increase pond production. Preliminary success on alternate feed for larval rearing and spontaneous maturation of milkfish in concrete tanks may help alleviate milkfish fry supply in the future. Studies on rabbitfish centered on improvement of larval survival and search for the optimum diet for growth of rabbitfish fry and juveniles reared in ponds. The difficulty in rearing rabbitfish larvae due to high mortality at first week after hatching hinders the development of the rabbitfish industry. Research involving mullet was solely on the establishment of broodstock for fish propagation.
  • Other

    ADSEA '91-Foreword 

    EEC Flores - In F Lacanilao, RM Coloso & GF Quinitio (Eds.), Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia and Prospects for Seafarming and Searanching; 19-23 August 1991; Iloilo City, Philippines., 1994 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department

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