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Bacteria are very common in the aquatic environment. Most bacterial disease agents are part of the normal flora of the water. They cause disease only when the fish are stressed due to poor environmental conditions, inadequate diet and poor husbandry techniques. This chapter focuses on the most common bacterial diseases of groupers.
Tendencia, E. A., & Lavilla-Pitogo, C. R. (2004). Bacterial diseases. In K. Nagasawa & E. R. Cruz-Lacierda (Eds.), Diseases of cultured groupers (pp. 19-28). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center.