Now showing items 1-7 of 7

    • Bacterial diseases 

      Tendencia, Eleonor A.; Lavilla-Pitogo, Celia R. (Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, 2004)
      Bacteria are very common in the aquatic environment. Most bacterial disease agents are part of the normal flora of the water. They cause disease only when the fish are stressed due to poor environmental conditions, inadequate ...
    • Diseases of cultured groupers 

      Nagasawa, Kazuya; Cruz-Lacierda, Erlinda R. (Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, 2004)
      Groupers (Epinephelus) are recognized as economically-important marine fish and abundantly cultured in Southeast Asia for domestic consumption and overseas export. Various diseases occur in grouper aquaculture and frequently ...
    • Environmental diseases 

      Erazo-Pagador, Gregoria E.; Cruz-Lacierda, Erlinda R. (Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, 2004)
      This chapter focuses on swimbladder stress syndrome and gas bubble disease, the two most common disorders due to adverse environmental conditions.
    • Fungal diseases 

      Catap, Elena S.; Lio-Po, Gilda D. (Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, 2004)
      The incidence of ichthyophoniosis in groupers (Epinephelus) has been reported in Plectropomus sp. in Singapore and Cromileptes altivelis in Indonesia. It has also been known to infect at least 80 other species of teleost ...
    • Nutritional diseases 

      Amar, Edgar C.; Lavilla-Pitogo, Celia R. (Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, 2004)
      Nutritional diseases of fish may develop as a result of deficiency (undernutrition), excess (overnutrition), or imbalance (malnutrition) of nutrients present in their food. The disease usually develops gradually because ...
    • Parasitic diseases 

      Cruz-Lacierda, Erlinda R.; Erazo-Pagador, Gregoria E. (Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, 2004)
      A wide variety of parasitic organisms have been reported as causing significant problems in grouper aquaculture. In the hatchery and nursery stages, parasitic diseases of groupers are caused predominantly by protozoans, ...
    • Viral diseases 

      Lio-Po, Gilda D.; de la Peña, Leobert D. (Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, 2004)
      Some viral infections are serious diseases of groupers causing heavy mortalities. In most cases, larval stages are the most susceptible stage. With the carnivorous nature of groupers, they can readily ingest viral pathogens ...