Lipid nutrition studies on grouper (Epinephelus coioides) larvae
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The main objectives of this project were to study the lipid chain transfer from the egg stage through hatching and the patterns of lipid conservation or loss during starvation and feeding of larvae in order to elucidate the lipid metabolism of grouper (Phase 1); to determine the fatty acid composition of highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) boosters and enriched live food organisms to enable the possibility of choosing food organisms that provide various dietary levels and ratios of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and arachidonic acid (ARA, Phase 2); and to determine the effect of Brachionus and Artemia, containing different levels and ratios of DHA:EPA:ARA, on the growth and survival of grouper larvae (Phase 3). Total lipids (TL) of samples were extracted and separated into neutral (NL) and polar lipids (PL). The samples collected in Phase 1 were floating neurula eggs, newly hatched (NHL) and unfed 4-day larvae; larvae fed with live food organisms for 25 and 35 days or starved for 3 days; and wild-sourced larvae starved for a week. In Phase 2, the samples collected were phytoplanktons, Brachionus cultured in phytoplankton for 4 days, Diaphanosoma celebensis and Pseudodiaptomus annandalei. In phase 3, larvae were fed Brachionus until day 14 and at day 25 with Artemia. E. coioides eggs contained high DHA, EPA and ARA, demonstrating their importance in larval development. Larvae primarily spent NL as energy, whereas PL was generally conserved. Wild grouper larvae had higher levels of PL than NL, whereas hatchery-sourced eggs and larvae contained higher levels of NL than PL. Based on the lipid content of wild larvae, high phospholipid diets were essential for larvae survival and normal development. A variety of products were effective in enriching the HUFA content (particularly ratios of DHA, EPA and ARA) of live food organisms. HUFA-enriched live food organisms enhanced the growth, survival and pigmentation in grouper larvae.
Alava, V. R., Priolo, F. M. P., Toledo, J. D., Rodriguez Jr., J. C., Quinitio, G. F., Sa-an, A. C., … Caturao, R. D. (2004). Lipid nutrition studies on grouper (Epinephelus coioides) larvae. In M. A. Rimmer, S. McBride, & K. C. Williams (Eds.), Advances in grouper aquaculture (pp. 47–52). Canberra: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research.
PublisherAustralian Centre for International Agricultural Research
SeriesACIAR Monograph 110
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Molecular cloning and localization of GABAA receptor-associated protein in the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis HS Marcial, K Suga, S Kinoshita, G Kaneko, A Hagiwara & S Watabe -
International Review of Hydrobiology, 2014 - Wiley-VCH Verlagγ-Aminobutyric acid receptor type A-associated protein (GABARAP) and its homologs constitute a protein family found in many eukaryotes from yeast to human, and are known to be involved in intracellular membrane trafficking of GABAA receptors and autophagy. In this study, we cloned cDNA-encoding GABARAP from the monogonont rotifer Brachionus plicatilis and examined for its tissue distribution at the protein level in neonates, males and females. Using reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) techniques, we showed that like other GABARAPs, rotifer GABARAP was also composed of 117 amino acids and highly homologous to vertebrate GABARAP2 ortholog (74–76% identity). GABARAP was demonstrated with its specific antibody to be ubiquitously distributed, irrespective of neonates, males, and females, in the coronal area that covers brain and contains most mechano- and chemoreceptors. Rotifer GABARAP was also expressed in the mature eggs but not in immature eggs. Double immunostaining with mammalian anti-GABA γ receptor antibody showed that rotifer GABARAP co-localized with GABA receptor, suggesting the association of the two proteins. The presence of GABARAP in rotifer implies that it is highly conserved during evolution, and plays important roles in various biological processes.
Book chapterOM Millamena - In OM Millamena, RM Coloso & FP Pascual (Eds.), Nutrition in Tropical Aquaculture: Essentials of fish nutrition, feeds, and feeding of tropical aquatic species, 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThis section aims to teach the reader the ten essential amino acids required by fish and their chemical structures, distinguish between essential and non-essential amino acids; the fate of absorbed amino acids in fish; effects of deficiencies and excesses of dietary amino acids in fish diets; the procedure on how to determine the qualitative and quantitative amino acid requirements of fish; methods of evaluating protein quality; and how to determine protein requirements of some aquaculture species.
Amino and fatty acid profiles of wild-sourced grouper (Epinephelus coioides) broodstock and larvae VR Alava, FMP Priolo, JD Toledo, JC Rodriguez Jr., GF Quinitio, AC Sa-an, MR de la Peña & RD Caturao - In MA Rimmer, S McBride & KC Williams (Eds.), Advances in grouper aquaculture, 2004 - Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research
Series: ACIAR Monograph 110This study was undertaken to provide information on the levels of amino acids in the muscle, liver and gonad of wild-sourced broodstock and larvae, as well as in neurula eggs and day 35 larvae from a hatchery. The fatty acid composition of grouper broodstock tissues was also determined. Samples were analysed for crude protein, amino acids, total lipids and fatty acid contents. Muscle contained higher levels of crude protein and amino acids than the ovary and liver. At the early maturing stage, the grouper ovarian protein was 73.3% and lipid was 19.3%, indicating the high dietary requirements of these nutrients for ovarian development. The crude protein and amino acid contents in wild-sourced larvae were higher than that in eggs and larvae from the hatchery.