This second edition consists of fourteen chapters detailing essential information on the basic principles of disease causation, major diseases of cultured fish and crustaceans, particularly shrimps/prawns, harmful algae, methods of prevention and control, molecular/serological/histological diagnostic techniques and epidemiology. Emphasis is still on major diseases that occur in the Philippines and other countries in the Asian region. Each chapter begins with a brief preview of its contents, followed by an in-depth discussion that culminates in a summary. The basic concepts presented were derived from textbooks on microbiology and fish health while the scientific information put forth were drawn from the research and diagnostic findings of the authors, colleagues at SEAFDEC and other institutions in the Philippines and in other countries. The figures and photos included were selected from the authors’ collection of disease cases or shared by colleagues in this field but duly acknowledged directly on the respective figure caption/s. Another modification is the specific reference citation following the corresponding text with its complete bibliography in the references. As in the first edition, the references are supplemented with additional suggested reading materials for the expanded information of interested readers. To make the concepts more understandable, a glossary is included. An index is also incorporated at the end of the book for quick location of desired subtopics. It is hoped that this second edition will be more responsive to the needs of students, aquaculturists and scientists in preventing fish/shellfish diseases and in dealing with outbreaks effectively.

  • Contents

    • Foreword
    • Messages
    • Preface
    • About the Editors
    • Contributors
    • Chapter 1
      Disease development
      Celia R. Lavilla-Pitogo
      • Introduction
      • Definition and impact of disease
      • How disease develops
        • Hosts
        • Pathogens
        • Environment
        • Human factor in disease development
        • Stress in disease development
      • Disease diagnosis
        • Signs of diseases
        • Diagnosis
        • Levels of diagnosis
      • Surveillance and monitoring
      • Emerging issues related to fish health
        • Environment and food safety issues in aquaculture
        • Transboundary diseases
        • Biosecurity
      • References and suggested readings
    • Chapter 2
      Parasitic diseases and pests
      Erlinda R. Cruz-Lacierda
      • Introduction
      • Life cycle patterns of fish parasites
      • Fish diseases caused by parasites
      • Crustacean diseases caused by parasites
      • Summary
      • References and suggested readings
    • Chapter 3
      Fungal diseases
      Eduardo M. Leaño
      • Introduction
      • What are fungi?
      • Major diseases of fish associated with fungi
      • Major fungal diseases of crustaceans
      • Summary
      • References and suggested readings
    • Chapter 4
      Bacterial diseases
      Eleonor V. Alapide-Tendencia and Leobert D. de la Peña
      • Introduction
      • What are bacteria?
      • Identifying the bacterial etiology by Koch’s Postulates
      • Virulence determinants
      • Important bacterial diseases of fish
      • Important bacterial diseases of shrimp
      • General preventive measures against bacterial infections in shrimps
      • Summary
      • References and suggested readings
    • Chapter 5
      Viral diseases
      Gilda D. Lio-Po
      • Introduction
      • Basic structure of a virus
      • Taxonomy
      • Replication and virulence
      • Specificity of viruses
      • Modes of transmission
      • Virus carriers
      • Diagnosis
      • Major viral infections of finfishes
      • Major viral infections of penaeid shrimps
      • Major viral infections of freshwater prawns
      • Prevention of viral infections
      • Summary
      • References and suggested readings
    • Chapter 6
      Environmental and other non-infectious diseases
      Gregoria E. Erazo-Pagador and Rolando V. Pakingking Jr.
      • Introduction
      • Fish diseases associated with adverse physico-chemical properties of water
      • Shrimp diseases associated with physico-chemical properties of water
      • Neoplastic diseases/genetic diseases
      • Diseases associated with physical factors
      • Diagnosis of environmental and other non-infectious diseases
      • Summary
      • References and suggested readings
    • Chapter 7
      Nutritional diseases
      Celia R. Lavilla
      • Introduction
      • Types of feeds
      • Components of feeds
        • Proteins and amino acids
        • Carbohydrates
        • Fats and lipids
        • Vitamins
        • Minerals
        • Pigments
        • Antioxidants, binders and other feed components
      • Determining the nutritional status of fish
      • Nutritional deficiency diseases of fish
        • Fats and lipids deficiency
        • Vitamin imbalances
        • Mineral deficiencies
        • Role of nutrients in resistance or susceptibility to infectious disease
      • Nutritional diseases of shrimps
        • Vitamin C deficiency
        • Chronic soft shell syndrome
        • Blue disease or blue shell syndrome
        • Appendage deformity syndrome
        • Body cramp or cramped tail syndrome
        • Underfeeding
      • Feed quality problems that affect fish health
        • Improper storage
        • Aflatoxin contamination
        • Aflatoxicosis in shrimp
        • Toxic components of the diet
        • Transmission of diseases through trash fish
      • Summary
      • References and suggested readings
      • Summary
    • Chapter 8
      Harmful and toxic algae
      Romeo D. Caturao
      • Introduction
      • Types of harmful and toxic algal blooms
      • Effects of algal blooms to fish and marine environment
      • The first written reference of harmful algal blooms
      • The first recorded fatal cases
      • Occurrences of harmful algal blooms in the Philippines
      • Conditions that stimulate harmful and toxic algal blooms
      • Strategies in coping with the problems of harmful and toxic algal blooms
      • Recommendations
      • Summary
      • References and suggested readings
    • Chapter 9
      Histology as a tool in disease diagnosis
      Elena S. Catap and Erlinda R. Cruz-Lacierda
      • Introduction
      • Animal cells and body tissues
      • Normal histology of fish tissues
        • Skin
          • Epidermis
          • Dermis
          • Hypodermis
        • Muscle
          • Skeletal muscles
          • Smooth muscles
          • Cardiac muscles
        • Gills
        • Liver
        • Stomach and intestine
        • Kidney
        • Spleen
        • Blood cells
          • Red blood cells (erythrocytes)
          • White blood cells (leukocytes)
        • Heart
      • Summary
      • References and suggested readings
    • Chapter 10
      Serological and DNA-based techniques in disease diagnosis
      Leobert D. de la Peña
      • Introduction
      • Immunological techniques
        • Agglutination
        • Precipitation
        • Fluorescent Antibody Technique (FAT)
        • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)
        • Western Blotting
      • DNA-based techniques
        • Gene probe assays
        • Polymerase Chain Reaction
          • Basic principle
          • Primer design
          • One-step PCR
          • Nested PCR
          • RNA (RT) PCR
          • Multiplex PCR
          • Quantitative PCR (Q-PCR)
          • Problems with PCR
        • Lateral Flow Assay (LFA)
        • Loop-Mediated Isothermal Ampli cation (LAMP)
      • Summary
      • References and suggested readings
    • Chapter 11
      Physical, environmental, and chemical methods of disease prevention and control
      Erlinda R. Cruz-Lacierda and Gregoria E. Erazo-Pagador
      • Introduction
      • Physical methods
        • Quarantine
        • Fish health classification schemes
      • Environmental methods
        • Proper site selection and farm design
        • Good water quality
        • Sanitary practices
        • Stress avoidance
        • Termination procedures
        • Biosecurity measures
      • Chemical methods
        • Prophylactic methods
          • Disinfection of culture facilities
          • Disinfection of rearing water
          • Disinfection of materials
          • Disinfection of feeds
          • Disinfection of Penaeus monodon
        • Chemotherapy
          • Methods of disease treatment
        • Principles of bioassay
          • Types of bioassay
          • Bioassay test procedures
      • Summary
      • References and suggested readings
    • Chapter 12
      Immunity and biological methods of disease prevention and control
      Edgar C. Amar and Jesus Manolo E. Almendras
      • Introduction
      • The fish immune system
        • Innate or non-specific immunity
        • Adaptive or specific immunity
        • Humoral vs. cellular immunity
        • New perspectives on innate and adaptive immunity
      • The crustacean immune system
        • Hemocyte types
        • Immune response to pathogens
      • Immunosuppression
        • Stress
        • Heavy metals
        • Aromatic hydrocarbons
        • Pesticides
        • Drugs
      • Biological control
        • Avoidance of pathogens
        • The role of stress in immunity
        • Improvement in host resistance
        • Biological modification of the culture system
      • Summary
      • References and suggested readings
    • Chapter 13
      Probiotics in aquaculture
      Gilda D. Lio-Po
      • Introduction
      • Mechanisms of action
        • Inhibition of pathogen growth/multiplication
        • Competitive exclusion
        • Bioremediation
        • Mucosal adhesion/penetration
        • Adhesion and resistance to fish bile
        • Stimulation/enhancement of host immune responses
        • Improvement or stimulation of appetite and nutrition
        • Improvement of reproductive performance
      • Methods of administration
        • Addition into the rearing water
        • Incorporation into the feed
        • Use of a carrier
      • Summary
      • References and suggested readings
    • Chapter 14
      Basic epidemiological concepts for surveillance in aquaculture
      Ignacio de Blas
      • Concepts about surveillance
      • Sampling methods
        • Basic concepts
        • Objectives
        • Characteristics of the sample
        • Sampling methods
        • Calculation of the sample size
      • Diagnostic accuracy
        • Validation of a diagnostic test
        • Factors that influence the diagnostic quality
        • Selection of diagnostic tests
        • Increasing diagnostic accuracy: combination of two tests
      • Estimation of disease frequency
        • Cross-sectional measurement of the disease
        • Construction of confidence intervals
        • Factors that affect calculation of the measurement of disease
        • Prevalence calculation working with pooled samples
      • References and suggested readings
    • Glossary
    • Index

Recent Submissions

  • Book

    Health management in aquaculture 

    GD Lio-Po & Y Inui - 2010 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    A textbook on diseases of cultured warmwater fish and shrimps in the Philippines. Eleven chapters cover essential information on the basic principles of disease causation, major diseases of cultured fish and crustaceans, particularly shrimps, and methods of prevention and control. Emphasis is made on major diseases that occur in the Philippines and other countries in the Asian region. Included also are topics on harmful algae, immunology and molecular biological diagnostic techniques.
  • Book chapter

    Immunity and biological methods of disease prevention and control 

    EC Amar & JME Almendras - In GD Lio-Po & Y Inui (Eds.), Health Management in Aquaculture, 2010 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The chapter deals with the barriers that prevent microbial entry and the various internal defense mechanisms that are part of the host's arsenal in combating in combating invading microbes. It also discusses some of the biological methods of disease prevention and control.
  • Book chapter

    Basic epidemiological concepts for surveillance in aquaculture 

    I de Blas - In GD Lio-Po & Y Inui (Eds.), Health Management in Aquaculture, 2010 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
  • Book chapter

    Viral diseases 

    GD Lio-Po - In GD Lio-Po & Y Inui (Eds.), Health Management in Aquaculture, 2010 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Outbreaks of viral infections can cause massive mortalities among cultured fishes or shrimps. Water temperature and age of the fish or shrimps are significant factors that influence the development of viral infections. Most fish viral infections occur at low water temperatures, hence, very few viral infections among fishes in warm water culture systems are reported. In addition, most viral infections occur among fry or fingerlings often causing severe mortalities, while older fish or shrimp develop resistance or are hardly affected. Stress from handling, poor water quality, high stocking density and poor nutrition also affect the severity of viral infections. Finally, aquaculturists should beware in importing non-indigenous fish or shrimps into the country as these are potential carriers of viral pathogens.
  • Book chapter

    Physical, environmental, and chemical methods of disease prevention and control 

    ER Cruz-Lacierda & GE Erazo-Pagador - In GD Lio-Po & Y Inui (Eds.), Health Management in Aquaculture, 2010 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Disease prevention is a primary and cost-effective method in fish health management. It is more effective and economical than attempting to stop a disease that has already set in. Preventive measures have always big advantage over curative practices. Moreover, the drug may not provide remedies under all circumstances. Also, the drug may not help the host survive the infection until the environment is improved. Ideally, fish culturists should strive to decrease the stress-causing factors and eliminate and prevent the entry of pathogenic organisms by strictly adhering to the fish health monitoring programme.
  • Book chapter

    Parasitic diseases and pests 

    ER Cruz-Lacierda - In GD Lio-Po & Y Inui (Eds.), Health Management in Aquaculture, 2010 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    This chapter deals with parasitic animals of significance to aquaculture because of their harmful effects on fish and crustaceans. It also illustrates the life cycle of major parasites and discusses the various methods in diagnosing diseases caused by parasites, including disease prevention and control.
  • Book chapter

    Serological and DNA-based techniques in disease diagnosis 

    LD de la Peña - In GD Lio-Po & Y Inui (Eds.), Health Management in Aquaculture, 2010 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The improvement of existing serological techniques, development of monoclonal antibody technology and the development of new serological approaches are all working together to provide new tools for the detection of disease-causing organisms in fish and crustaceans. Following the introduction of nucleic acid hybridization technique and PCR, it was recognized that the methods offered a sensitive approach to the detection and identification of specific microorganisms as in the case of a bacterial or viral infection in a variety of sample types. Potentially, a characteristic DNA sequence from a single virus particle or cell of a particular organism can be amplified to detectable levels within a short period of time. Conventional diagnostic methods that involve the culture of microorganisms can take days or weeks to complete or very tedious to perform. PCR offers a rapid, very sensitive, very specific and simple alternative. Further developments in immunodiagnostics and emerging technologies such as quantitative PCR, lateral flow assay and loop-mediated isothermal amplification diagnostic tests will revolutionize the detection, identification and quantification of the infectious disease agents. Further, advancements in gene sequencing analyses will enable strain differentiation among closely related viruses.
  • Book chapter

    Harmful and toxic algae 

    RD Caturao - In GD Lio-Po & Y Inui (Eds.), Health Management in Aquaculture, 2010 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The chapter provides basic facts about harmful and toxic algae. It also discusses the conditions that stimulate their occurrence, different types of harmful and toxic algal blooms and their effects to fish and marine environment. The different strategies in coping with the problem of harmful and toxic algal blooms are also discussed.
  • Book chapter

    Nutritional diseases 

    CR Lavilla-Pitogo & EC Amar - In GD Lio-Po & Y Inui (Eds.), Health Management in Aquaculture, 2010 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Diagnosis of nutritional diseases is difficult because many signs exhibited by fish are non-specific and most nutritional deficiencies are hard to define. A compilation of data on feed composition and feeding management, as well as husbandry practices, are needed to define a case. Most of data on fish and shrimp nutritional diseases were gathered under experimental conditions. Under farm conditions, most of that definition would be clouded with errors in husbandry practices or secondary infection. Therefore, attempts to diagnose nutritional diseases should be carefully done using every available technique to define the case.
  • Book chapter

    Environmental and other non-infectious diseases 

    GE Erazo-Pagador & RV Pakingking Jr. - In GD Lio-Po & Y Inui (Eds.), Health Management in Aquaculture, 2010 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The chapter presents some of the environmental non-infectious diseases of aquatic animals. Non-infectious diseases are caused by adverse environmental conditions, nutritional disorders, or genetic defects. While they can result a sudden mass mortality or death, they are not contagious. Environmental diseases are the most important in aquaculture. This includes low dissolved oxygen, high ammonia, high nitrite, or natural or man-made toxins in the aquatic environment.
  • Book chapter

    Histology as a tool in disease diagnosis 

    ES Catap & ER Cruz-Lacierda - In GD Lio-Po & Y Inui (Eds.), Health Management in Aquaculture, 2010 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Histology is an important tool in fish disease diagnosis as it affords the comparison of normal structures or morphology of tissues against those from diseased fish. However, correct diagnosis and confirmation of changes associated with diseases require proper specimen processing and some degree of expertise in histopathology.

    The four basic types of tissues are: epithelial, connective, muscular and nervous. An organ is usually a combination of these four tissue types. It is important to remember that the histology or structure of an organ is always related to the function it performs.
  • Book chapter

    Probiotics in aquaculture 

    GD Lio-Po - In GD Lio-Po & Y Inui (Eds.), Health Management in Aquaculture, 2010 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
  • Book chapter

    Disease development 

    CR Lavilla-Pitogo - In GD Lio-Po & Y Inui (Eds.), Health Management in Aquaculture, 2010 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Disease occurrence is one of the biggest deterrents to sustainable production in aquaculture. It is therefore important to enhance awareness among various sectors of the importance of health management in the aquaculture industry. This can be done through education and information dissemination. Students in fisheries and veterinary medicine need to have adequate background information on the aquatic animal disease and health management to understand the problems and needs of a fast-growing aquaculture industry. Recognizing disease signs early and using mortality pattern as a clue to the disease agent involved will not only make diagnosis easier, but it will also prevent massive losses by timely implementation of remedial measures.
  • Book chapter

    Bacterial diseases 

    EV Alapide-Tendencia & LD de la Peña - In GD Lio-Po & Y Inui (Eds.), Health Management in Aquaculture, 2010 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Fish and crustaceans that are not weakened by poor environmental conditions, or by other causes, such as parasitic infestation, nutritional deficiency, handling stress, or chemical intoxication, are more resistant to bacterial infections. This is due to the presence of a large amount of bactericidal substances in the blood, which helps overcome infections. So, the best precaution against the occurrence of bacterial infections is to provide the fish with optimum environmental conditions, adequate amounts of the right kinds of food and avoidance of stress, including overcrowding. Vaccination/ immunization and genetic manipulation (i.e., the development of specific pathogen resistant fry) are also some ways of preventing bacterial diseases. The use of antibiotics should always be an option of the last resort.
  • Book chapter

    Fungal diseases 

    EM Leaño - In GD Lio-Po & Y Inui (Eds.), Health Management in Aquaculture, 2010 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Over the past 20 years, aquatic animal mycopathogens have become the focus of considerable research. The many known occurrences of fungal diseases in wild populations and the documented devastating disease outbreaks indicate that fungal and fungal-like pathogens are important in nature. Fungal diseases can act as major limitations on natural and cultured populations of aquatic animals. However, knowledge on fungal diseases is rudimentary consisting primarily of the identification and pathology of etiological agents. Detection of fungal infections relies only on the observation of gross pathology, histological examinations, and standard mycological isolation and identification procedures. As a result, there are some cases where the implicated fungal pathogen cannot be demonstrated as the primary cause of a particular disease. In such cases, the fungal pathogen is usually regarded as secondary invader. Continued research in basic mycology is still an essential resource for fish pathologists in diagnosing diseases caused by fungi. Although fungi reportedly affect very few species, fungal diseases, if not properly controlled or prevented, can still pose a threat to the aquaculture industry.