Now showing items 1-15 of 15

    • Book chapter

      Basic epidemiological concepts for surveillance in aquaculture 

      I de Blas - In GD Lio-Po & Y Inui (Eds.), Health Management in Aquaculture, 2010 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • Book chapter

      Immunity and biological methods of disease prevention and control 

      EC Amar & JME Almendras - In GD Lio-Po & Y Inui (Eds.), Health Management in Aquaculture, 2010 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The chapter deals with the barriers that prevent microbial entry and the various internal defense mechanisms that are part of the host's arsenal in combating in combating invading microbes. It also discusses some of the biological methods of disease prevention and control.
    • Book chapter

      Disease development 

      CR Lavilla-Pitogo - In GD Lio-Po & Y Inui (Eds.), Health Management in Aquaculture, 2010 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Disease occurrence is one of the biggest deterrents to sustainable production in aquaculture. It is therefore important to enhance awareness among various sectors of the importance of health management in the aquaculture industry. This can be done through education and information dissemination. Students in fisheries and veterinary medicine need to have adequate background information on the aquatic animal disease and health management to understand the problems and needs of a fast-growing aquaculture industry. Recognizing disease signs early and using mortality pattern as a clue to the disease agent involved will not only make diagnosis easier, but it will also prevent massive losses by timely implementation of remedial measures.
    • Book chapter

      Physical, environmental, and chemical methods of disease prevention and control 

      ER Cruz-Lacierda & GE Erazo-Pagador - In GD Lio-Po & Y Inui (Eds.), Health Management in Aquaculture, 2010 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Disease prevention is a primary and cost-effective method in fish health management. It is more effective and economical than attempting to stop a disease that has already set in. Preventive measures have always big advantage over curative practices. Moreover, the drug may not provide remedies under all circumstances. Also, the drug may not help the host survive the infection until the environment is improved. Ideally, fish culturists should strive to decrease the stress-causing factors and eliminate and prevent the entry of pathogenic organisms by strictly adhering to the fish health monitoring programme.
    • Book chapter

      Parasitic diseases and pests 

      ER Cruz-Lacierda - In GD Lio-Po & Y Inui (Eds.), Health Management in Aquaculture, 2010 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      This chapter deals with parasitic animals of significance to aquaculture because of their harmful effects on fish and crustaceans. It also illustrates the life cycle of major parasites and discusses the various methods in diagnosing diseases caused by parasites, including disease prevention and control.
    • Book chapter

      Bacterial diseases 

      EV Alapide-Tendencia & LD de la Peña - In GD Lio-Po & Y Inui (Eds.), Health Management in Aquaculture, 2010 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Fish and crustaceans that are not weakened by poor environmental conditions, or by other causes, such as parasitic infestation, nutritional deficiency, handling stress, or chemical intoxication, are more resistant to bacterial infections. This is due to the presence of a large amount of bactericidal substances in the blood, which helps overcome infections. So, the best precaution against the occurrence of bacterial infections is to provide the fish with optimum environmental conditions, adequate amounts of the right kinds of food and avoidance of stress, including overcrowding. Vaccination/ immunization and genetic manipulation (i.e., the development of specific pathogen resistant fry) are also some ways of preventing bacterial diseases. The use of antibiotics should always be an option of the last resort.
    • Book chapter

      Viral diseases 

      GD Lio-Po - In GD Lio-Po & Y Inui (Eds.), Health Management in Aquaculture, 2010 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Outbreaks of viral infections can cause massive mortalities among cultured fishes or shrimps. Water temperature and age of the fish or shrimps are significant factors that influence the development of viral infections. Most fish viral infections occur at low water temperatures, hence, very few viral infections among fishes in warm water culture systems are reported. In addition, most viral infections occur among fry or fingerlings often causing severe mortalities, while older fish or shrimp develop resistance or are hardly affected. Stress from handling, poor water quality, high stocking density and poor nutrition also affect the severity of viral infections. Finally, aquaculturists should beware in importing non-indigenous fish or shrimps into the country as these are potential carriers of viral pathogens.
    • Book chapter

      Probiotics in aquaculture 

      GD Lio-Po - In GD Lio-Po & Y Inui (Eds.), Health Management in Aquaculture, 2010 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • Book chapter

      Fungal diseases 

      EM Leaño - In GD Lio-Po & Y Inui (Eds.), Health Management in Aquaculture, 2010 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Over the past 20 years, aquatic animal mycopathogens have become the focus of considerable research. The many known occurrences of fungal diseases in wild populations and the documented devastating disease outbreaks indicate that fungal and fungal-like pathogens are important in nature. Fungal diseases can act as major limitations on natural and cultured populations of aquatic animals. However, knowledge on fungal diseases is rudimentary consisting primarily of the identification and pathology of etiological agents. Detection of fungal infections relies only on the observation of gross pathology, histological examinations, and standard mycological isolation and identification procedures. As a result, there are some cases where the implicated fungal pathogen cannot be demonstrated as the primary cause of a particular disease. In such cases, the fungal pathogen is usually regarded as secondary invader. Continued research in basic mycology is still an essential resource for fish pathologists in diagnosing diseases caused by fungi. Although fungi reportedly affect very few species, fungal diseases, if not properly controlled or prevented, can still pose a threat to the aquaculture industry.
    • Book chapter

      Histology as a tool in disease diagnosis 

      ES Catap & ER Cruz-Lacierda - In GD Lio-Po & Y Inui (Eds.), Health Management in Aquaculture, 2010 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Histology is an important tool in fish disease diagnosis as it affords the comparison of normal structures or morphology of tissues against those from diseased fish. However, correct diagnosis and confirmation of changes associated with diseases require proper specimen processing and some degree of expertise in histopathology.

      The four basic types of tissues are: epithelial, connective, muscular and nervous. An organ is usually a combination of these four tissue types. It is important to remember that the histology or structure of an organ is always related to the function it performs.
    • Book chapter

      Serological and DNA-based techniques in disease diagnosis 

      LD de la Peña - In GD Lio-Po & Y Inui (Eds.), Health Management in Aquaculture, 2010 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The improvement of existing serological techniques, development of monoclonal antibody technology and the development of new serological approaches are all working together to provide new tools for the detection of disease-causing organisms in fish and crustaceans. Following the introduction of nucleic acid hybridization technique and PCR, it was recognized that the methods offered a sensitive approach to the detection and identification of specific microorganisms as in the case of a bacterial or viral infection in a variety of sample types. Potentially, a characteristic DNA sequence from a single virus particle or cell of a particular organism can be amplified to detectable levels within a short period of time. Conventional diagnostic methods that involve the culture of microorganisms can take days or weeks to complete or very tedious to perform. PCR offers a rapid, very sensitive, very specific and simple alternative. Further developments in immunodiagnostics and emerging technologies such as quantitative PCR, lateral flow assay and loop-mediated isothermal amplification diagnostic tests will revolutionize the detection, identification and quantification of the infectious disease agents. Further, advancements in gene sequencing analyses will enable strain differentiation among closely related viruses.
    • Book chapter

      Harmful and toxic algae 

      RD Caturao - In GD Lio-Po & Y Inui (Eds.), Health Management in Aquaculture, 2010 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The chapter provides basic facts about harmful and toxic algae. It also discusses the conditions that stimulate their occurrence, different types of harmful and toxic algal blooms and their effects to fish and marine environment. The different strategies in coping with the problem of harmful and toxic algal blooms are also discussed.
    • Book chapter

      Nutritional diseases 

      CR Lavilla-Pitogo & EC Amar - In GD Lio-Po & Y Inui (Eds.), Health Management in Aquaculture, 2010 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Diagnosis of nutritional diseases is difficult because many signs exhibited by fish are non-specific and most nutritional deficiencies are hard to define. A compilation of data on feed composition and feeding management, as well as husbandry practices, are needed to define a case. Most of data on fish and shrimp nutritional diseases were gathered under experimental conditions. Under farm conditions, most of that definition would be clouded with errors in husbandry practices or secondary infection. Therefore, attempts to diagnose nutritional diseases should be carefully done using every available technique to define the case.
    • Book chapter

      Environmental and other non-infectious diseases 

      GE Erazo-Pagador & RV Pakingking Jr. - In GD Lio-Po & Y Inui (Eds.), Health Management in Aquaculture, 2010 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The chapter presents some of the environmental non-infectious diseases of aquatic animals. Non-infectious diseases are caused by adverse environmental conditions, nutritional disorders, or genetic defects. While they can result a sudden mass mortality or death, they are not contagious. Environmental diseases are the most important in aquaculture. This includes low dissolved oxygen, high ammonia, high nitrite, or natural or man-made toxins in the aquatic environment.
    • Book

      Health management in aquaculture 

      GD Lio-Po & Y Inui - 2010 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      A textbook on diseases of cultured warmwater fish and shrimps in the Philippines. Eleven chapters cover essential information on the basic principles of disease causation, major diseases of cultured fish and crustaceans, particularly shrimps, and methods of prevention and control. Emphasis is made on major diseases that occur in the Philippines and other countries in the Asian region. Included also are topics on harmful algae, immunology and molecular biological diagnostic techniques.