Proceedings of the Meeting on Current Status of Transboundary Fish Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training, Manila, Philippines, 23-24 June 2004

The Regional Fish Disease Program convened in Manila, Philippines on 23-24 June 2004 the Meeting on Current Status of Transboundary Fish Disease in Southeast Asia: Occurrence, Surveillance, Research and Training. Participants included scientists from the 11 SEAFDEC Member Countries, two invited speakers from Taiwan and Canada, 10 AQD scientists, and two scientists each from the Office International des Epizooties and the Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific. The meeting provided a forum for SEAFDEC Member Countries to share experiences and knowledge of transboundary fish diseases and pathogens, discussed the status of fish disease quarantine, surveillance, monitoring, diagnosis, research, and training in the Member Countries, and identified the issues and problems to be solved at the national and regional or international levels.

Recent Submissions

  • Book | Conference publication

    Transboundary fish diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurrence, surveillance, research and training. 

    CR Lavilla-Pitogo & K Nagasawa (Eds.) - 2004 - Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
  • Conference paper

    Current status of transboundary fish diseases in Vietnam: Occurrence, surveillance, research and training. 

    KV Van - In CR Lavilla-Pitogo & K Nagasawa (Eds.), Transboundary Fish Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training. Proceedings of … Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training, Manila, Philippines, 23-24 June 2004, 2004 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
  • Conference paper

    Current status of transboundary fish diseases in the Philippines: Occurrence, surveillance, research and training. 

    SE Regidor, JD Albaladejo & JR Somga - In CR Lavilla-Pitogo & K Nagasawa (Eds.), Transboundary Fish Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training. Proceedings of … Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training, Manila, Philippines, 23-24 June 2004, 2004 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
  • Conference paper

    Current status of transboundary fish diseases in Thailand: Occurrence, surveillance, research and training. 

    S Kanchanakhan - In CR Lavilla-Pitogo & K Nagasawa (Eds.), Transboundary Fish Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training. Proceedings of … Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training, Manila, Philippines, 23-24 June 2004, 2004 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
  • Conference paper

    Current status of transboundary fish diseases in Singapore: Occurrence, surveillance, research and training. 

    LK Huat, S Kueh & PY Kwang - In CR Lavilla-Pitogo & K Nagasawa (Eds.), Transboundary Fish Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training. Proceedings of … Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training, Manila, Philippines, 23-24 June 2004, 2004 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
  • Conference paper

    Current status of transboundary fish diseases in Myanmar: Occurrence, surveillance, research and training. 

    NY Saw - In CR Lavilla-Pitogo & K Nagasawa (Eds.), Transboundary Fish Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training. Proceedings of … Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training, Manila, Philippines, 23-24 June 2004, 2004 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
  • Conference paper

    Research and training on fish diseases at the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department in 2000-2004: A review. 

    K Nagasawa - In CR Lavilla-Pitogo & K Nagasawa (Eds.), Transboundary Fish Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training. Proceedings of … Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training, Manila, Philippines, 23-24 June 2004, 2004 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    This paper reviews various research and training activities on fish diseases at the Aquaculture Department of the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC) in Iloilo, Philippines. The activities were implemented through the "Regional Fish Disease Project" of the Government of Japan Trust Fund starting in March 2000. A total of 29 research studies were conducted from 2000-2004 in the following aspects: (1) establishment and standardization of diagnostic methods; (2) biology and pathogenesis of disease pathogens; (3) disease prevention and control; (4) establishment of evaluation methods for residual chemicals in aquaculture products; and (5) epizootiology and prevention of koi herpesvirus disease. Some of these studies were conducted by scientists from the Department of Fisheries in Thailand, and from the Marine Fisheries Research Department (MFRD) of SEAFDEC in Singapore. Two sessions of hands-on training on "Important Viral Diseases of Shrimp and Marine Fish" was implemented in 2002 and 2003. Participants from the SEAFDEC member countries were funded by the project to attend the training course. The course consisted of both lecture and practical hands-on sessions. The latter focused on the use of molecular tools and other important techniques in the diagnosis of viral diseases of shrimp and marine fish. This review also provides information on publications such as proceedings, manuals, review articles, scientific papers, terminal report, annual reports, flyers, pamphlets and others as the outputs of research activities and international meetings that were organized with financial support from the project.
  • Conference paper

    Background and objectives of the Meeting on Current Status of Transboundary Fish Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurrence, Surveillance, Research and Training. 

    K Nagasawa - In CR Lavilla-Pitogo & K Nagasawa (Eds.), Transboundary Fish Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training. Proceedings of … Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training, Manila, Philippines, 23-24 June 2004, 2004 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
  • Conference paper

    Experience on common carp mass mortality in Japan. 

    M Sano, T Ito, J Kurita, K Yuasa, S Miwa & T Iida - In CR Lavilla-Pitogo & K Nagasawa (Eds.), Transboundary Fish Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training. Proceedings of … Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training, Manila, Philippines, 23-24 June 2004, 2004 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    The mortality rate among common carp for food reared in net pens in Lake Kasumigaura, the second largest lake in Japan, in Ibaraki Prefecture, increased from early October 2003 and koi herpesvirus (KHV) was detected in the affected fish by the National Research Institute of Aquaculture (NRIA) in late October using PCR methods of Gilad et al. (2002) and Gray et al. (2002). The Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries of Japan officially announced the first occurrence of KHV disease in Japan. In late October 2003, the water temperature of Lake Kasumigaura was 16-180C and the fish losses were severe, particularly in market-sized carp. The apparent symptoms of affected fish were presence of mucus-like substance on the body surface, sunken eyes, and pale and necrotic gills, which were similar to those reported by Hedrick et al. (2000). Approximately 1,200 metric tons of common carp cultured in the lake were lost by mid-November. Prior to this, however, infected carp cultured in Lake Kasumigaura had already been transferred to farms, wholesalers, restaurants and game fishing facilities. Consequently, the infection spread to other areas in Japan. Independent of the outbreak in Lake Kasumigaura, a massive carp loss of over 10 thousand fish, the cause of which was initially diagnosed as columnaris disease, occurred in some rivers and a lake in Okayama Prefecture from late May to mid-July 2003. In November, the NRIA detected KHV DNA by PCR from samples of the diseased fish stored in a freezer. This demonstrated that KHV was present in Japan before late May 2003. By the end of 2003, KHV was detected in carp from 23 out of 47 prefectures in Japan. No occurrence of the disease was observed during the winter period. However, as the water temperature increased in spring of 2004, KHV reappeared in the area where the disease had been previously recorded, and also in new places. In many of the facilities that experienced KHV outbreak in 2003, the disease was not observed by June 2004 because all carp had been removed together with other fish species and the facilities were disinfected thoroughly after the outbreaks. From January to the end of May 2004, KHV infections were reported in 24 of 47 prefectures in Japan.
  • Conference paper

    Current status of transboundary fish diseases in Malaysia: Occurrence, surveillance, research and training. 

    FA Latiff - In CR Lavilla-Pitogo & K Nagasawa (Eds.), Transboundary Fish Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training. Proceedings of … Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training, Manila, Philippines, 23-24 June 2004, 2004 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
  • Conference paper

    The role of quarantine in preventing the spread of serious pathogens of aquatic animals in Southeast Asia. 

    JR Arthur - In CR Lavilla-Pitogo & K Nagasawa (Eds.), Transboundary Fish Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training. Proceedings of … Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training, Manila, Philippines, 23-24 June 2004, 2004 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    Quarantine, in the strict sense, is the confinement of aquatic animals of unknown or questionable health status in secure facilities such that neither they nor any pathogens they may be carrying can escape into the external environment. During the period of quarantine, the animals are observed, tested, and treatment may be applied, and a decision will be made as to whether or not they should be released to the external environment.

    While the concept of quarantine for aquatic animals has existed for many years, within the current framework of "national biosecurity", quarantine is seen as one of a number of risk mitigation options that governments can apply to reduce the likelihood of serious pathogens being introduced with the importation of live aquatic animals and their products.

    Although the concept of quarantine is relatively simple, its effective implementation may be complex, due to the need for specialized infrastructure, capability and expertise. Several Southeast Asian countries have considered or attempted to implement border quarantine for live aquatic animals; however, these efforts have met with little success. This has been due to a number of reasons, including failure to carefully define the scope and purpose of quarantine within a national aquatic animal health program, the diversity of forms in which trade occurs, the sheer volume of commodity traded, the lack of simple and accurate diagnostics tests for some pathogens, and the limited capital and human resources that governments are able to commit to this effort.

    To improve this situation, risk analysis can be used to determine whether or not the importation of a given commodity (living aquatic animal or its product) poses an unacceptable disease risk to national biosecurity. In those cases where an unacceptably high level of risk exists, possible risk mitigation measures can then be examined to determine what actions, if any, can be applied to reduce the risk to within the country's appropriate level of protection (ALOP). In this way, quarantine, as one of a suite of possible risk reduction measures, can be applied effectively on a case-by-case basis to reduce the risk of introduction, establishment and spread of serious aquatic animal pathogens into new areas.
  • Conference paper

    AquaHealth Online: A new learning environment for capacity building in aquatic animal health. 

    CR Lavilla-Pitogo & PL Torres Jr. - In CR Lavilla-Pitogo & K Nagasawa (Eds.), Transboundary Fish Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training. Proceedings of … Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training, Manila, Philippines, 23-24 June 2004, 2004 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    Due to significant requirement of trained personnel in Fish Health Management, the Aquaculture Department of the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC/AQD) offered 14 sessions of face-to-face (F2F) training (1988-2002) at its station in Iloilo. However, shrinking fellowship and travel funds necessitated a shift in training paradigm. Thus, transformation of teaching materials used in F2F trainings resulted to AquaHealth Online, a team developed and electronically delivered course on Health Management in Aquaculture. The general objective of the course transformation was to train a large pool of geographically dispersed participants at minimum cost, and this paper reports on the experience earned in course development, delivery and outcome.

    To enable Fish Health specialists to develop materials and skills to deliver courses for the online environment, SEAFDEC/AQD collaborated with the University of the Philippines Open University to help adapt, enhance, and reformulate materials in the F2F course for online delivery. The specialists underwent hours of training in "techno-pedagogy", or ways of transforming teaching activities into formats that could be understood even in our absence. The primary learning resource is a CD-ROM that provides interactive information with self-assessment questions. The course covers 12 modules in 4 units: I. Introduction to Fish Health Management; II. Infectious Diseases of Fish and Crustaceans; III. Non-Infectious Diseases; and IV. Disease Diagnosis, Prevention and Control. Learning enhancement and discussion occurs through internet-based Discussion Boards (DBs) presided over by module specialists. The DBs serve as media for asynchronous discussions and makes a permanent record of lessons learned. When first offered in 2002, AquaHealth Online had 25 enrollees from 10 countries. In 2003, there were 17 participants from 8 countries. Participants were led to "just-in" relevant information and encouraged to submit assignments from internet resources. This course is an example that a state-of-the-art online course can be as effective as F2F training.
  • Conference paper

    Current status of transboundary fish diseases in Indonesia: Occurrence, surveillance, research and training. 

    A Sunarto, Widodo, Taukhid, I Koesharyani, H Supriyadi, L Gardenia, B Sugianti & D Rukmono - In CR Lavilla-Pitogo & K Nagasawa (Eds.), Transboundary Fish Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training. Proceedings of … Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training, Manila, Philippines, 23-24 June 2004, 2004 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
  • Conference paper

    Summary brief: International symposium on koi herpesvirus diseases. 

    GD Lio-Po - In CR Lavilla-Pitogo & K Nagasawa (Eds.), Transboundary Fish Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training. Proceedings of … Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training, Manila, Philippines, 23-24 June 2004, 2004 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    The Koi Herpesvirus Disease (KHVD) is the newest viral disease that caused mass mortalities of affected koi and common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The disease was initially reported in Israel and the United States in 2000. By March 2002, the first outbreak in Asia occurred in Indonesia that since then spread throughout the country. In early October 2003, KHVD outbreaks in Japan were first observed in Lake Kasumigaura and Kitaura of Ibaraki Prefecture.With the alarming spread of KHVD in Asia, strategies for its prevention and control need to be initiated. Hence, on 13 March 2004, the Fisheries Research Agency (FRA) of Japan, the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC), the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) of Japan and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) organized the "International Symposium on Koi Herpesvirus Disease" in Yokohama, Japan. It was a forum participated in by scientists from Japan, SEAFDEC member countries, United States, East Asia, Israel and Europe to exchange the latest information on the disease and its prevention and control.
  • Conference paper

    Current status of transboundary fish diseases in Lao PDR: Occurrence, surveillance, research and training. 

    T Theungphachanh - In CR Lavilla-Pitogo & K Nagasawa (Eds.), Transboundary Fish Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training. Proceedings of … Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training, Manila, Philippines, 23-24 June 2004, 2004 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
  • Conference paper

    Current status of transboundary fish diseases in Brunei Darussalam: Occurrence, surveillance, research and training. 

    HLH Hamid - In CR Lavilla-Pitogo & K Nagasawa (Eds.), Transboundary Fish Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training. Proceedings of … Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training, Manila, Philippines, 23-24 June 2004, 2004 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
  • Conference paper

    The role of the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) in health improvement of aquatic animals. 

    Y Oketani - In CR Lavilla-Pitogo & K Nagasawa (Eds.), Transboundary Fish Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training. Proceedings of … Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training, Manila, Philippines, 23-24 June 2004, 2004 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) is an inter-governmental organization that was established in 1924 in order to promote world animal health. OIE missions that have become increasingly important and its mandate that has been expanded to meet requirements from the world are strongly supported by the Member Countries now reaching 167. OIE Regional Offices have been established in Tokyo, Buenos Aires, Beirut, Sofia and Bamako covering Asia and the Pacific, the Americas, the Middle East, Eastern Europe and Africa.

    The main objectives of the OIE are:

    1) To ensure transparency in the global animal disease situation;

    2) To collect, analysis and disseminate scientific veterinary information;

    3) To contribute expertise and encourage international solidarity in the control of animal diseases;

    4) Within its mandate under the WTO SPS Agreement, to safeguard world trade by publishing health standards for international trade in animals and animal products;

    5) To improve the legal framework and resources of Veterinary Services; and

    6) To provide a better guarantee of the safety of food of animal origin and to promote animal welfare through a science-based approach.
  • Conference paper

    Current status of koi herpesvirus disease in Taiwan 

    C Tu, SY Lin & HT Sung - In CR Lavilla-Pitogo & K Nagasawa (Eds.), Transboundary Fish Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training. Proceedings of … Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training, Manila, Philippines, 23-24 June 2004, 2004 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    The first reported case of koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD) occurred in northern Taiwan in December 2002. Later, there were three more cases in 2003 and one outbreak of KHVD in 2004. Externally, the affected fish did not show any prominent lesions except swollen gills sometimes accompanied by bleeding. Consistent histopathological findings were in the gill tissues, where hyperplasic epithelia and eosinophilic granular cells were observed within fused secondary lamellae. Electron microscopy revealed negativelystained icosahedral viral nucleocapsids measuring 112±1 nm in diameter. Also, the koi herpesvirus was detected in the homogenate of diseased fish by PCR assay using specific primers for koi herpesvirus (KHV). The amplicon was cloned, sequenced and compared with previously published data. The sequenced data showed 99% identity with the American KHV sequence in the GenBank. The above evidence suggests that KHVD have already invaded carp culture systems in Taiwan.
  • Conference paper

    Current status of transboundary fish diseases in Cambodia: Occurrence, surveillance, research and training. 

    B Racy - In CR Lavilla-Pitogo & K Nagasawa (Eds.), Transboundary Fish Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training. Proceedings of … Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training, Manila, Philippines, 23-24 June 2004, 2004 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
  • Conference paper

    Transboundary shrimp viral diseases with emphasis on white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and taura syndrome virus (TSV). 

    LD de la Peña - In CR Lavilla-Pitogo & K Nagasawa (Eds.), Transboundary Fish Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training. Proceedings of … Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training, Manila, Philippines, 23-24 June 2004, 2004 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    Crustaceans, specifically the cultured penaeid shrimp, are adversely affected by a number of diseases. Crustacean diseases that have significant social or economic impact on culture are mostly infectious in nature and many of them have no therapeutic remedies or treatments. There are currently 8 diseases of crustaceans listed by the OIE, seven of which are viral diseases of penaeid shrimp. This summary discusses two of the most important viral diseases in penaeid shrimp, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Taura syndrome virus (TSV).